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and anthropology are two sciences trying to shed light on the lives of ancient
civilisations. The main aim of all the research is to find vestiges of lost
cultures and civilizations, to decode the code of the universe, and hence, life.
Iran, with its aura of mystery, is one of the most important civilisations among
the cultures of Antiquity and continues to attract the attention of scientists.
As the King of Kings and the ancestors of the Iranian nation refuse to give up
their secrets, science takes a further step toward unveiling what has been
hidden for millennia.
is a glimpse of their painstaking works:
Prehistoric Project; Excavation at Chogha Bonut, 1996-97 Excavation
Excavation at Tal-e Malâyân (Anshân)
Malyan, located 46 km north of Shiraz in the Zagros mountains of Fars Province,
is the site of Anshan, a great city, comparable to Elamite Susa and the Sumerian
cities of Mesopotamia in size and importance ..... The University of
Pennsylvania sponsored excavations at the site in 1971, 1972, 1974, 1976, and
Archaeological Expedition in Parthian City of Nisa (in Modern
Turkmanistan), Year 2000, by The University of Turino; archaeological expedition
in Nisa resulted in some wonderful photographs of the digs and the surrounding
countryside, not to mention a snapshot of the team.
The Iranian Center for Conservation and
Restoration of Cultural Property
vast area of some three square kilometres in the northern foothills of the
Karkas Mountains is covered by slags and other traces of very old smelting
activity. The area is located close to Arisman village on the main road kashan
to Naiin in central Iran. The same routes have been used since millennia for
connection of different ancient settlements in central Iran like Tappeh Sialk
and Qomrud that are located in the same plain as Arisman.
Iranian Center for Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Property
Discoveries at Susa
Surveys in Northwestern Fars Province; by Professor Abbas Alizadeh
Search of Ancient Seafarers in the Persian Gulf
Deh Luran Archaeological
Deh Luran Plain in southwestern Iran -- a small and arid foothill valley
covering only 940 square kilometers-- was the focus of research designed to
evaluate various hypotheses about the development of agriculture, of early
villages and towns, and the first complex societies. Various U.S. teams, in
cooperation with the Archaeological Service of Iran, and with the support of the
U.S. National Science Foundation, undertook this research during the 1960s. This
is a presentation of the research on the first complex societies.
Chronology of Deh Luran
7100-6600 BCE Bus Mordeh
6600-6000 BCE Ali Kosh
6100-5800 BCE Mohammad Jaffar
5800-5700 BCE Sefid
5700-5600 BCE Surkh
5600-5350 BCE Choga Mami Transitional
5350-5200 BCE Sabz
5200-4900 BCE Khazineh
4900-4700 BCE Mehmeh
4700-4500 BCE Bayat
4500-4200 BCE Farukh
4200-4000 BCE Suse
4000-3100 BCE Uruk
3100-2900 BCE Jemdet Nasr
2900-2350 BCE Early Dynastic
2350-1300 BCE Elamite
to: Kush, in Persian Gulf;
A Sasanian and Islamic tell from modern Ras al-Khaimah (UAE).
present excavation project will come to an end in 1999/2000. For a
recently-published outline of the work and a description .....
at Dagestan, by David Stronach
"The Land of Mountains," lies in Southern Russia at a point where the
high ranges of the Caucasus most closely approach the western shore of the
to: The Tall-e Bakun
Bakun is a twin site located in the fertile Marv Dasht plain of Fars, near
Persepolis, the Achaemenid ceremonial capital. Bakun has played a prominent role
in the understanding of the prehistory of Fars, ...
high mountains of the Bakhtiari country were largely left out of the
archeological equation despite their proximity to the heartland of Mesopotamian
and Elamite civilization. Work in the region indicated the long ...
Link to: The
Prehistory of Southeastern Balochistan (in modern Pakistan)
is Pakistan´s largest province. It is marked by a rugged, but multi- facetted
environment. The Makran Range in the south and the successive chains of
to: The Chogha
Mish; The Join Prehistoric Project
Joint Prehistoric Project comprises several archaeological expeditions in Iraq,
Iran, and Turkey dating from 1947. All of these separate excavations, however,
sought the solution to a general problem ....
to: Achaemenid Royal
aim of the Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions project is to create an electronic
study edition of the inscriptions of the Achaemenid Persian kings in all of
their versions--Old Persian, Elamite, Akkadian, and, where ...
treasures of Lake Hamun, By Nersi Ramazan-nia
to: Hormuz; The RGS
Musandam (Persian Gulf) Expedition 1971-72
brief survey of archaeological sites along the west coast of the Musandam
Peninsula of Northern Oman was undertaken. Despite limitations imposed by the
very rugged terrain, the survey yielded interesting results, ...
German Archaeological Expedition to the Mazun (today Sultanate of Oman) [ Link
During this time span annual excavations took place in Samad al Shan and al
Maysar. Graves were excavated and one house. The graves were located in several
cemeteries which contained the graves of the Wadi Suq, Lizq/Rumaylah and Samad
Periods. The project centred on the Samad Culture which initially was believed
to represent the "Parthian, Hellenistic, and Sasanian populations". A
largely early medieval population came to light ranging from the year 0 (or
earlier) to 900 AD.
Parallel to "Samad Project", tests were conducted at al Amqat and al
Bustan for the Ministry. Samad graves were investigated al Amqat in the
mountainous Sama`il Pass and in the drainage fan of al Bustan. On the strength
of these two cemeteries and another at Bandar Jissa, the distribution of the
Samad Culture became clearer. The graves at al Amqat and al Bustan were better
preserved than at Samad/Maysar. Given the size of the sample excavated (five
graves at al Amqat, eight at al Bustan) it is difficult to contrast the burial
customs there with those of al Jawf, the heartland of the Samad Culture.
Archaeobotanical Reports from Iran and Related Items
accumulated by Naomi F. Miller, University of Pennsylvania Museum, March 1997
1985 Considerazioni su alcuni reperti di palma da dattero e sul centro di
origine e l'area di coltivazione della Phoenix dactylifera L. Orientalia Iosephi
Tucci Memoriae Dicata 56: 209-217.
1977 Le Piante. In La Citta Bruciata del Deserto Salato, ed. G. Tucci.
Pp. 159-228. Venice: Erizzo Editrice.
1979 Wood Remains from Shahr-i Sokhta. In South Asian Archaeology 1977,
ed. M. Taddei. Pp. 87-121. Naples.
Costantini, Lorenzo and L. Costantini Biasini
1985 Palaeoethnobotanical Studies of Prehistoric Settlements in Soughun and
Dowlatabad Valleys, Iran. Newsletter of Baluchistan Studies (Istituto
Universitario Orientale, Naples) 2: 16-230.
Costantini, Lorenzo and Robert H. Jr. Dyson
1990 The Ancient Agriculture of the Damghan Plain: The Archaeobotanical Evidence
from Tepe Hissar. In Economy and Settlement in the Near East, ed. N.F.
Miller. Pp. 46-64. MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Supplement
to vol. 7, Philadelphia.
1969 Plant-Collecting, Dry-Farming, and Irrigation Agriculture in Prehistoric
Deh Luran. In Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Deh Luran Plain, eds.
F. Hole, K.V. Flannery, and J.A. Neely. Pp. 383-426. University of Michigan
Museum of Anthropology Memoir 1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Museum of
Iran//Neolithic//Ali Kosh//Musiyan//Tepe Sabz
Hopf, Maria and U. Willerding
1989 Pflanzenresten. In Bastam II, Ausgrabungen in den Urartaischen
Anlagen 1977-1978, W. Kleiss. Pp. 263-318 + plates. Teheraner Forschungen 5.
Deutsches Archaologisches Institut.
Kyllo, M. A. and R.N.L.B. Hubbard
1981 Median and Parthian Plant Remains from Tepe Nush-i Jan. Iran 19: 91-100.
Miller, Naomi F.
1977 Preliminary Report on the Botanical Remains from Tepe Jaffarabad, 1969-1974
Campaigns. Cahiers de la Delegation Archeologique Francaise en Iran 7: 49-53.
Miller, Naomi F.
1981 The Plant Remains. In An Early Town on the Deh Luran Plain,
Excavations at Tepe Farukhabad, Henry T. Wright. Pp. 227-32; 427-30. University
of Michigan Museum of Anthropology Memoir 13. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Museum of Anthropology.
Miller, Naomi F.
1981 Plant Remains from Ville Royale II, Susa. Cahiers de la Delegation
Archeologique Francaise en Iran 12: 137-142.
Miller, Naomi F.
1982 Economy and Environment of Malyan, a Third Millennium B.C. Urban Center in
Southern Iran. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Miller, Naomi F.
1983 Paleoethnobotanical Results from Bendebal and Jaffarabad. Cahiers de la
Delegation Archeologique Francaise en Iran 13: 277-284.
Miller, Naomi F.
1984 The Interpretation of Some Charred Cereal Remains as Remnants of Dung Cake
Fuel. Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture 1: 45-47.
Miller, Naomi F.
1984 The Use of Dung as Fuel: An Ethnographic Example and an Archaeological
Application. Paleorient 10(2): 71-79.
Miller, Naomi F.
1985 Paleoethnobotanical Evidence for Deforestation in Ancient Iran: A Case
Study of Urban Malyan. Journal of Ethnobiology 5: 1-19.
Miller, Naomi F.
1985 Paleoethnobotanical Research in Khuzestan. Paleorient 11(2): 125-137.
Miller, Naomi F.
1996 Appendix C. Palaeoethnobotany. In Excavations at Anshan (Tal-e
Malyan): The Middle Elamite Period, E. Carter. Pp. 99-108. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Museum.
Miller, Naomi F. and Tristine L. Smart
1984 Intentional Burning of Dung as Fuel: A Mechanism for the Incorporation of
Charred Seeds into the Archeological Record. Journal of Ethnobiology 4: 15-28.
Radford, David Scott
1980 The Study of Ancient Plant Material from Tepe Farukhabad. Masters' Thesis.
University of Southampton, Southampton.
1975 Hasanlu Project 1974: Paleobotanical Survey. Iran 8: 185-186.
van Zeist, Willem P. E.L. Smith, R.M. Palfenier-Vegter, M. Suwijn, and W.A.
1984(1986) An Archaeobotanical Study of Ganj Dareh Tepe, Iran. Palaeohistoria
Willcox, George W.
1990 Charcoal Remains from Tepe Abdul Hosein. In Tepe Abdul Hosein: A
Neolithic Site in Western Iran, Excavations 1978, J. Pullar. Pp. 223-227? BAR
International Series 563. Oxford.
Iran//Tepe Abdul Hosein//Neolithic
Woosley, A.-I and F. Hole
1978 Pollen evidence of subsistence and environment in ancient Iran. Paleorient
Wright, Henry T., Naomi F. Miller, and Richard W. Redding
1978 Time and Process in an Uruk Rural Center. In L'archeologie de l'Iraq:
Perspectives et limites de l'interpretation anthropologique des documents Pp.
265-282. Colloques internationaux du CNRS 580. Paris.
Allan S. Gilbert, Jerold M. Lowenstein, and Brian C. Hesse
Biochemical Differentiation of Archaeological Equid Remains: Lessons from a
Journal of Field Archaeology 17 (1990) 39--48
The difficulty of distinguishing different taxa of equids from one another on
the basis of skeletal morphology has led to the search for alternative means by
which archaeologically recovered bones may be separated according to species or
hybrid. The recently evolved biomolecular technique of protein radioimmunoassay
(RIA) offers much promise in this regard because it identifies specimens using
constituent proteins that differ from species to species and that tend to blend
in selectively bred crosses. The method works for ancient bones only when
sufficient amounts of the appropriate proteins survive.
Bone samples were assayed from wild, hunted onagers recovered from Neolithic
levels of Ali Kosh Tepe in lowland SW Iran and from possible hybrids recovered
from Bronze Age Levels of Godin Tepe in highland western Iran. Although
insufficient albumin remained with which to accomplish the intended goal of
species identification, the pattern of collagen retention provided important
information on the relationship between taphonomy and protein survival.
The authors encourage excavators to reserve parts of their archaeological
fauna for RIA if the depositional context suggests favorable conditions for
preservation of the ancient proteins.
Oscar White Muscarella
The Location of Ulhu and Uise in Sargon II's Eighth Campaign, 714 B.C.
Journal of Field Archaeology 13 (1986) 466--475
In 714 B.C., Sargon II, king of Assyria, conducted a major military campaign
across the Zagros Mountains into western Iran. It was the eighth campaign of his
reign, and the fourth into Iran. This time, Sargon's main goal was to contain
the state of Urartu within its territory and to subdue its allies. The itinerary
of the Assyrian army and the events of the campaign were written in the form of
a long letter from the king to the god Assur, and it is preserved almost in its
entirety. The text is of great importance because it gives one of the most
extensive itineraries of an Assyrian campaign and, unlike other Assyrian
reports, it mentions by name, and often describes, a large number of cities and
fortresses as well as many geographical features. For over 70 years scholars
have attempted to reconstruct the route of Sargon from Assyria to Iran and to
identify by epigraphical and archaeological research and survey the cities and
features he mentions. Unfortunately, there has been little agreement among the
modern researchers with regard to the specific directions taken by Sargon and
equally so with attempts to link a site on the archaeological map with one
mentioned in the ancient text. The present article gives a summary of the
various solutions offered over the years and argues for the identification of
two archaeologically known sites with two of those mentioned by Sargon.
James A. Neely and Paul S. Storch
Friable Pigments and Ceramic Surfaces: A Case Study from SW Iran
Journal of Field Archaeology 15 (1988) 108--114
The loss of friable pigments, as well as the ceramic surfaces to which they
were applied, was researched in an attempt to stay the destructive processes
affecting sherds recovered by survey in SW Iran. Prior to experimental
treatment, the pigments and salt efflorescences were identified using optical
and instrumental analyses. A technique for cleaning the calcareous encrustations
from the pigment and ceramic surfaces without the use of acids was developed.
This cleaning technique also solved a problem encountered in x-ray diffraction
analysis when studying pigments applied to ceramics affected by salt
encrustations. Several consolidant solutions were tested and applied to
polychrome painted sherds recovered from one of the sites in the Deh Luran
Plain. An acrylic resin was found to be acceptable as a consolidation agent. The
authors feel that the experiments and results presented will serve as useful
models for archaeologists and conservators facing similar problems.
Rose L. Solecki
More on Hafted Projectile Points in the Mousterian
Journal of Field Archaeology 19 (1992) 207--212
It has been suggested that Mousterian points, characteristic tools of many
Middle Paleolithic industries, should be reclassified as converging side
scrapers. This paper reviews the data from the two Zagros Mousterian sites used
in a recent study, and also discusses problems inherent in the basic assumptions
and comparative evidence. It is concluded that the question of hafted projectile
points in the Mousterian is still an open issue. Furthermore, the classification
of Mousterian points as side scrapers obscures their most obvious morphological
attribute, that is, a sharply pointed end.
Were There Hafted Projectile Points in the Mousterian?
Journal of Field Archaeology 16 (1989) 79--85
A test based on the pattern of use-related damage seen on projectile points
from American Paleoindian sites is proposed to determine whether artifacts
identified morphologically as points were in fact used as hafted projectiles.
Thes test is applied to artifacts identified, based on Bordes' typology, as
Mousterian points from two Iranian Mousterian sites (Warwasi and Bisitun). The
results show that the ``Mousterian points'' from these sites do not have a
breakage pattern consistent with a projectile point function.
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