The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies
The Late Sogdian Costume
(the 5th - 8th c. AD)
Sergey A. Yatsenko
The article presents a brief summary of some materials on Sogdians from three chapters of my PhD dissertation “The Costume of the Ancient Iranian-Speaking Peoples and the Methods of Its Historical-Cultural Reconstructions” (2002)1. The dissertation gives a detailed reconstruction of the costume complex of 13 major nomadic and sedentary peoples of the Iranian world of three different epochs of the pre-Islamic history (Scythian-Achaemenian epoch: the 7th - 6th - the 4th -3d cc. BC; Parthian-Sarmatian epoch: the 3d-4th - the 7th-8th cc. AD; Sasanian and the Early Medieval epoch: 3-4th - 7-8th cc. AD) and contains their comparative analysis. It gives the opportunity to define the mechanisms of international contacts in the sphere of the costume and to study the direction of the costume evolution for some Iranian-speaking peoples, to make the information about the sign functions of clothes more precise. Special consideration is given to the clothes themselves, the task of investigating various small accessories, besides that, being impossible for a single researcher (the exception being made only for such a large accessory as the belt). The data on the coiffure, in many cases definitely showing ethnical specificity, has also been taken into consideration.
Serious generalization on the costume of Sogdians had not been made by 2002 yet. Since the end of the 70-ies it has become a tradition to consider it jointly and comparatively with the costume of the neighboring, more southern region - Tocharistan, mainly on the basis of wall paintings2, mostly the female costume being the subject matter of investigation3. A considerable part of I.B. Bentovich' article about the ancient costume of Western Turkestan is devoted to Sogdian materials4. The only generalizing article, specially devoted to the costume of Sogd namely, contains 1,5 pages5. The authors of these works did not aim at the full coverage of the material known on Sogdians, presenting only a series of bright examples (the later not guaranteeing correct conclusions in the process of studying such numerous data as the costume gives, the criteria of sampling the material being not definite and not always clear).
The characteristics of such a large accessory as the belt take a special place in the Sogdian costume study. There are articles and their section about golden belts of aristocrats-dihkans6, about the design of plate-decorated belts7 and the belts of different peoples in Afrasiab wall paintings8.
Depictions in wall paintings and terracotta statuettes are the main sources on Sogdian clothes of the 5th-8th cc. AD.
Wall paintings have been found first of all in dwelling complexes of ancient Penjikent in the east of Sogd, the initial brightness of their colors having been well-preserved9. A certain part of vast Pejikent materials is still to be published properly. The wall paintings with images of ethnical Sogdians themselves (neither Turks nor foreigners) on the territory of ancient Samarkand - Afrasiab10 and in the capital of an outlying Sogdian district Ustrushana - Bunjikat (Kalai-Kah-kaha I) have been preserved to a smaller degree11. Some images in the country palace of Bukhara rulers Varakhsha also present a certain interest12. More precise dating of single painting compositions (which is not always easy to be done) and stylistic peculiarities of certain periods are very important13.
Relief images on late ceramic vessels for bones of dead - ossuaries, dated back to the 7-8th cc. AD from different regions of Sogd are also interesting16. I considered only those ones, which were not just remaking of Sasanian or Byzantine patterns17. Some very important bust images of rulers can be found on Sogdian coins18. As to anthropomorphous images on silver vessels, they are mainly from the period of Arabian rule19.
In a number of cases considered the elements of epic personages and gods' clothes in Sogdian terracotta and paintings (the latter ones having obvious Indian and Susanian elements) to be Sogdian and the identification of a number of personages in the 'Hall of Ambassadors' in Afrasiab as namely Sogdians is arguable. At the same time N. Lapiere' opinion of goddesses and female musicians' and dancers' clothes being exclusively ritual and having nothing in common with reality20 is not practically proved and seems to be an exaggeration.
As the comparison of Sogdian personages in terracotta and paintings shows the absence of any serious, principal difference in their clothing, these materials can be studied in common.
Written sources on the Sogdian costume are not numerous. Chinese dynastic chronicles “Pei shih ” and “Tang shu”, characterizing mainly the inhabitants of Samarkand21 and the descriptions of Sagdian embassies' gifts to China and the impressions of Sogdian dancers and musician perfomances in China are of great interest22. Al-Kufi, at-Tabari and Narshahi describe the appearance of Sogdians in the period of Arabian rule23.
Of real clothing remnants of the articles made of fabrics and woven of cotton thread from the mountain castle of the ruler Devashtich (the bound of the 7th - 8th cc.) on the mountain Mug are especially valuable24.
Early Medieval clothes of Sogd known to us, in my opinion, can be researched in the boundaries of two periods. The first one is connected with nomads-Heptalites prevailing in Western Turkestan (the 5th - the 1st half of the 6th cc.). The political dominance of early Turks (approximately from 565 to the 40-ies of the 8th c.) accompanied by economical and cultural rise of Sogd is characteristic for the second period. But the second period of the costume history evidently started not soon after the beginning of the Turkic rule but half a century later, at the beginning of the 7th c. It was the starting point of turkization of Sogd (especially after the reforms of West Turkic qaghan Ton-jazbgu (618-630), in the course of these reforms the local nobility in conquered countries got Turkic titles and was officially included into the administrative system of the Qaghanat. The connection with China also strengthened after Tang dynasty (friendly towards “Western barbarians') coming to power in 626. So, the boundary line between two periods of late “costume” history of Sogd lies, to my mind, approximately in the 20-ies of the 7th c.
Unfortunately, the costume material on Sogd is documented extremely irregularly both in chronological and geographical respects. Some representative material has come to us only from several places of the territory of a politically split country. It won't be an exaggeration to say that our knowledge about Sogdian clothes in many respects are grounded to day on late finds in Penjikent and terracotta from Samarkand which are not always clear dated. It should be said that there are very few paintings of Heptalite time (the 5th - the 6th cc.) and dating of many terracotta back to that period is rather approximate, so, we can not seriously speak about properly detailed characterizing of the clothes of that period (although, as far as it is possible, the main peculiarities are being described further).
They were worn more seldom than non-thrown-open garments. At the same time, thrown-open clothes, namely, were depicted as the upper garments for female personages. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to differ a kaftan fastened up to the neck from a non-thrown-open garment with a vertical stripe of decor for sure. For example, in the clothes of feasting “merchants” (in the wall paintings of premises XVI/10) with such vertical element of décor (compare; pl. 2, 43,48,184)25. N.P. Lobachëva writes that “we can undoubtedly classify them as the thrown-open type”26, but I, just on the contrary consider them to be of the non-thrown-open type (judging from detailed images not only from Sogd but also from other Iranian-speaking countries of that time).
Male throw-open clothing
The length of that type of garments was rather various: from very short ones (as long as upper or lower part of hips), met very seldom (pl.1, 21; pl. 2, 57) to very long - reaching ankles (the later period: pl. 2, 3827). But the most usual length is reaching knees (pl.1, 19,23-24; pl. 2, 35,39,41-42,51,87) or a little longer (pl. 2, 34,37).
The hem usually had a horizontal edge. Frequently, a stitched on pleated hem had a scalloped edge (pl. 1, 21). The hem of the noble captive's garment from the wall painting in premises VI/13 in Penjikent28 has a triangular cut from behind (pl. 2, 57). The youth's kaftan (premises III/7) has rounded lower ends of coat-breasts (pl. 2, 41), which follows the most ancient Sogdian tradition (the kaftans of Sogdians - Achaemenids' tributaries - were depicted exactly like this a thousand years before that - on the boundary between the 6th-5th cc. BC)29. The forming of the collar was also various, reflecting different traditions and influences. Sometimes the fabric according to the most ancient tradition was beveled to the collar (pl. 1, 19-20; pl. 2, 34). The kaftan with one lapel, usually the right one (pl. 2, 41-42), and in one case with a left one (pl. 2, 44) was typical for youths in the 7th -8th cc. But the collar with two lapels can also be found for that period. It was usually worn by grown up men (pl. 1, 22; pl.2, 45,4730). Sleeves were usually full-length and were rather narrow. And they often had high cuffs in a later period (pl. 2, 39,42,45,47). Sometimes they were longer and pleated, with narrow cuffs (pl. 1, 19,25; pl. 2, 44). Very short sleeves are also known from the 6th c. (pl. 2, 35-36; sometimes their edge being beveled: pl. 2, 49,59) and there were also elbow-length sleeves (pl .2, 41,45).
Female thrown-open clothing
The length of the hem is also different; either short kaftans (as long as the lower part of hips) (pl. 3, 37,39) and ankle-length coats (“clocks” as I.B. Bentovich calls them) (pl. 3, 17,21-22). Short kaftans have (according to the most ancient tradition) rounded laps on different terracotta (pl. 3, 37-39; compare for men: pl. 2, 41) according to the most ancient Sogdian tradition. For the kaftans fabric was usually beveled to the collar (pl. 3, 36-37), for the coats of the later period we see two lapels according to the Turkic tradition (pl. 3, 17-18), and a long coat of a female-dancer, depicted on the ossuary from Ak-Kurgan with an original small left lapel (pl. 3, 21). The sleeves of female thrown-open clothing were always long and narrow.
Male non-thrown-open clothing
Such is sometimes called a “non-thrown-open kaftan”31. The length could be short (a bit lower the line of hips) (pl. 2, 49,65). There are also some examples with the length of the hem above knees (pl. 2, 50,57,59). More often the clothes were knee-length (pl. 1, 23-24; pl. 2, 40-42,48-49,57,60,65). More seldom by far, for royal persons the hem lower knees could be observed (pl. 2, 54-56). At last, ankle-length garments were also used (pl. 2, 56a,60,62a,64); in Ustrushana we see the hem with 12 wedge-shaped projections along the edge on the garment of the personage standing to the left of the “Roman she-wolf”32; its stitched on hem being decorated with horizontal stripes of large zigzag33, but, probably, did not use to be worn in Sogd practically.
From the 6th c. the hem, according to Sasanian traditions, had vertical side cuts rimmed with wide stripes of decor (pl. 1, 24; pl. 2, 48,50,58,62-62a,64) but it was rather narrow, i.e. it was not bulbous as in Iran. There is an opinion, that it is suitable in a sitting position to cover legs34. In one case a hem considerably widening downwards with three cuts in the front part is documented (pl. 1, 23). Sometimes, on later depictions of gods there was a short (to the hips or a bit longer) gala-shirt with the sleeves a bit longer elbows and the hem with a number of half-round festoons (or arch-shaped cuttings?) or on the contrary-half-round projections (pl. 2, 23,64).
The collar was usually horizontal and narrow enough, and edged with a stripe of fabric of another color. There was also a wide collar edged with a wide stripe of decor as well (pl. 2, 12,42-43); in the earlier period it was tied up at the left shoulder with two short ribbons (pl. 2, 45). At the same time we know a collar with a wedged-neck cut, often low, sometimes very low (pl. 1, 25; pl. 2, 63) or low half-oval (a mourned-over young god pl. 2, 58). Low stand-up collar is documented only in one case for an epic hero in premises III/17 (pl. 2, 60).
The sleeves of such clothing were usually narrow and long; only in one case their are longer and gathered at wrists (pl. 2, 53). At the same time in the early period for aristocrats and gods short upper shirts with short sleeves beveled to the sides (pl. 2, 49,59); the under garments worn under such shirts had also beveled edges (an oval projection, covering the wrist) (pl. 2, 49,59,61). If both under-and upper non-thrown open garments were worn simaltanously, the sleeves of the under one were often narrower and longer (to wrists) (pl. 2, 36,41,64).
Female non-thrown-open clothing
At that period it was obviously prevailing. The main kind of clothing was a dress (usually to feet), worn with an upper shirt (as long as the lower part of hips) with a thrown-open coat (worn thrown loosely over shoulders by noble dames). Or a kaftan buttoned practically up to the top. A short (a little lower or a little above knees) dress was worn as an upper garment in the complete set with trousers (the eastern courtyard or temple II; a female-musician from an ossuary in Kanka: pl. 3, 28,40). An armed female dancer from premises VI/55 (pl. 3, 19) and goddesses (pl. 1, 38-39; pl. .3, 23) have a full-length under dress with the hem edged with a flounce or frills in Sasanian manner, which is worn under a gala shirt or a kaftan; we can see the analogous garment on a female dancer (?) from premises VI/42. Two other women-musicians in the same scene are clad in full-length widening to the feet dresses with attached breast part (pl. 3, 27a). It's typical that such rare forms of shoulder clothes are worn by musicians and dancers namely.
The collar of upper short shirts had a triangular neck (pl. 3, 6,24): The tradition having been preserved in former Sogdian lands up to the 20th century in female shirts “peshyala”35. The dress collar is usually horizontal and rather narrow (pl. 3, 28). There are also known some shirts with low oval neck (a girl: pl. 3, 25) and (in the 6th c.) with shoulder straps with a very wide, open collar (a woman-mourner in temple II: pl. 3, 32). The sleeves of upper short shirts were also very short (pl. 3, 19,24,27). Dresses practically always had narrow sleeves (to wrists). Only dresses, worn by noble adorants under coats had sleeves, obviously wider than usual ones (pl. 3, 17-18). For a Sogdian girl in the “Indian” scene from premises VI/41 a low stand-up collar is documented as well as for men (pl. 3, 26).
Cloaks and Mantles
Cloaks, namely, fastened on the upper part of breast are known only for men. Such a cloak with a broach can be seen on one terracotta image of a musician (pl. 1, 26), on one of gods on the throne36 and an adorant in premises II/5 (pl. 2, 65b); in the last case it is black in colour and reaches knees. Another cloak of the same length (the 6th c.) is represented on the god from temple II (pl. 2, 65a). Along its upper edge there is a wide dense (leather?) ribbon, with a disk-shaped fastener which has a pendant (also disk-shaped) fixing its ends.
On the images of the king, the priest and the goddess (pl. 2, 65-б-в; pl. 3, 34) we see an original mantle approximely to the lower part of hips. It's ends hanging from shoulders were not fastened on the breast, but had special massive gold or gilded, disk-shaped or spherical “weight increases” having small flower buds or balls at the ends37. Besides women wore long kerchiefs thrown either on both shoulders or on the left one only38.
In Sogd they are known as a rule, for female personages. A royal maiden horse- rider in the epic scene (premises III/17) has a “male” Kushanian cross-like mantle with sharp projections (pl. 3, 35). The same mantle designed stylistically as a flower bud is depicted for one more young woman39. A goddess in the epic scene from (premises VI/41) has in stitched on shoulder medallions of Sasanian type, not with typically Iranian rosette or a bust image inside, but made of silk and with a pearl medallion (pl. 3, 31). Such shoulder medallions made all over of gold brocade are really presented in the costume of the priest in a face band (personage 11 on the southern wall) in the “Hall of Ambassadors” in Afrasiab40; the researcher obviously took this medallion for a plume on the head of the horse following him41.
Judging from depictions, a rather high cone-shaped felt head-dress (type 1) was very popular with youths and young men (pl. 1, 2-4,6; pl. 2, 3-6a). Sometimes it was without decor, for example a head-dress of a plebeian worker (pl. 2, 6 a). It had a rather narrow cap-band which could have a cut in front (pl. 2, 5). Sometimes it was fastened with a narrow hoop (in its lower part), the ends of which met on the forehead or at the back part of the head (pl. 2, 5a). In the depiction of a youth from premises XXI/1 in the episode from fables by Aesop (pl. 2, 4) the cap is obviously longer than usually and its edge is rolled up and forms a very wide cap-band (later on the analogous type of woolen cap “pakol' ” was worn with the edge several times rolled up for winter periods by ethnically close inhabitants of the Pamirians42). The members of ritual feasts could put green twigs of almonds into the cap-band (pl. 2, 3).
A high cap with a rounded top (type 2) is depicted in the costume of an old man (pl. 1, 6). It also has a cap-band and is fastened with a hoop in its lower part.
Felt hats (type 3) had high crowns and wide lowered down brims (pl. 1,7). The ruler of Samarkand in the 7th -8th cc. wore a hat, ornamented with gold and precious stones43.
Semi-spherical small caps (type 4) were richly decorated and are known only on terracotta (pl. 1, 10-11).
An original headdress of white color with the semi-spherical main part (having small cuts on both sides) with a high narrow top slanted back a little, which can be seen on one of feasting personages (pl. 2, 944) should not obligatory be considered a steel helmet of a curious form (type 5).
Berets (type 6). Richly decorated along the upper part and presented only on terracotta (pl. 1, 9).
A Turban, tied rather simply, in Turkic style (type 7) is known in a later period in a Sogdian horse-rider depiction (pl. 2, 1).
On one of terracotta there is a youth depicted in a very original low cap with two 'horns' on sides and a small ball on the top, shamrock-shaped projections on ears and two narrow ribbons, hanging behind (type 8) (pl. 1, 8). But I am not sure whether such type of headdresses was really worn in Sogd.
Their types are generally close to male ones but have other proportions and decor system.
A cone-shaped cap of a goddess (the 6th c.) (type 1) is not high and has a festoon edge and is completed with a rather long shawl (pl. 3, 2).
Felt hats. A female example (type 2) differs from a male one in a not caved in crown and not lowered down brims (pl. 1, 33).
A semispherical cap is covered up with polychromic fabric with large medallions (type 3) (pl. 1,32).
A known sample of the beret (type 4) has a much higher main part, if compared to a male one (pl. 1, 34).
A female example of a turban, presented in the depiction of a maiden (the goddess of the Moon) (type 5), is tied in a rather specific, absolutely another way than for the women of the previous Kushanian period (pl. 3, 1).
Perhaps, the only type of the headdresses having no analogy with male headdresses, are small kerchiefs of black fabric covering the bun of hair. Noble women in a later period, according to 'Pei shih' and 'Tang shu' data, decorated such fabric with gold flowers45. Such a kerchief we can see on a girl horse-rider in the epic scene in premises III/17 (type 6) (pl. 3, 8).
Another, very exquisite type of a headdress - an open-worked net of cotton thread, covering the upper part of plaits was found in the castle on mountain Mug (type7) (pl. 3, 3)46.
Besides the above-mentioned types we know different kinds of 'trident' caps (see for example pl. 1, 30-31) and other crowns47.
Male diadems were fastened from behind; the hanging ends, at that, being rather long (pl. 2, 12-13). In one case the diadem is tied in a bow still in Late Parthian way (pl. 2, 2)48. In a number of cases they were made of green silk for warriors, according to the witness of at-Tabari49. There is a very original band with a line of stuck-in feathers (pl. 1, 12a), reminding ancient Mesopatamian patterns. In the center of the band there could be placed a gold round plate with a rim (pl. 1, 13) (compare: as in neighboring mountain Chach for the main ambassador in the 'Hall of Ambassadors' in Afrasiab50). In Ustrushana (Kalai Kahkaha I) the band was decorated with groups of three crosses in each one (pl. 1, 18; pl. 2, 16a). Youths' bands often did not have any special decor (pl.1, 18; pl.2.13). The ruler of Samarkand on the boundary of the 6th -7th cc., according to Pei shih evidence, wore a golden diadem with inlays of 7 precious stones51.
The narrow band for women of different social origin was often made of precious fabric and had no other decor (pl. 3, 5,16). On one of terracotta there is a forehead band with three medallions (fixed very low) (pl. 1, 35).
Were usually of medium width; sometimes narrow ones were met (pl. 2, 78). Only the god from the wall-painting in 'the house with a granary”) has Sasanian royal 'double' sharovari with a vertical 'air bag' in the back (pl. 2, 65), but in reality, they were, obviously never worn by Sogdians. Unfortunately, trousers are practically not seen from under shoulder clothing. So, the depictions of half-naked dead warriors in premises XXI/1 and wrestlers in premises XVII/1452 (pl. 2, 75-76) present a great interest. Their trouser-legs are rolled up above knees. Trouser-legs and upper parts were always designed of different fabric (we can usually see only the low edge of trouser-legs with complex decor, often made of bright many-colored fabric).
In the depictions of acrobats we see very short belt clothing (some sort of tight-fitting shorts) (pl. 2, 77). It can hardly be any special “sport suit”53: analogous but loose short trousers were depicted on one of dead warriors in the battle scene of premises XXI/1. Sogdians were never depicted wearing loin-cloth only: it was considered being extremely indecent.
There was an interesting peculiarity of female trousers design54: the front seam was not stitched in its lower part forming a small triangle cut (pl. 1, 40; pl. 3, 42): G.M. Maitdinova even suggested that due to this element of design such trousers should be classified as the second type of Sogdian ones55.
Male belts were usually either sashes made of cloth or leather plate-decorated belts with a line of identical metal plates. The latter ones were repeatedly described by different authors sashes (also worn by priests) were tied on the belly with knots of different types, the ends were handing a little; they had fringles usually depicted schematically (pl. 2, 74-75). On the terracotta figurines of the god, known from the 6th c. - the sash is tied in a sacred 'knot of Herakles' (“direct sea knot”) (pl. 1, 2-8). In the depictions of gods (the 6th c.) from premises II/6 in 'the house with a granary' we see a belt of Sasanian design with two disk-shaped fasteners with two wide ribbons of bright (red) fabric passed through the holes (pl. 2, 65,74); I doubt such belt being practically used in Sogd.
Plate-decorated leather belts were usually of average length; evidently, they were often fastened not on the belly (there were no traces of their being fastened there), but on the side. The plates on the images were more often made of gold or gilded copper, having a rim, they were as wide as the belt it- self and frequently (from the boundary of the 5th-6th cc.) were prolonged rectangular in shape (pl. 2, 43,62,67-6856). Square plaques are also known (pl. 1, 27; pl. 2, 68a), round ones of different sizes (Varakhsha: pl. 2, 53) in the form of gold 4-petelled rosettes with a white pearl (?) in the middle (pl. 2, 72) or (in royal and aristocratic attires) two different types of incrusted plaques were combined (square and triangle: pl. 2, 66; square and oval57). In the images of sitting gods there are belts covered all over with round plaques rimmed with pearls of Bactrian-Tokharistanian origin (Varahsha58; terracotta: pl. l, 19-20) (Compare the images of Bodhisattvas of the 2nd c. in Kushanian Bactria from complex Dt-25 in Dalverzin-tepe, where such a belt was not a leather one decorated with plates but made of small gold medallions joined together59); their real existence in Sogd is extremely doubtful.
On establishing Turkic political domination from the middle of the 6th c. there appeared a tradition to alternate large round rimmed plaques with 2-4 small semispherical ones (a Sogdian priest, leading gift-horses - personage 11 on the southern wall in the 'Hall of Ambassadors' in Afrasiab60). Sometimes, the belt just had a line of small semispherical plaques (an adorant: pl. 2, 69). Besides, there appeared additional short pendant straps for fastening different accessories, typical for Turks. Such belts are not often depicted Sogdian art (pl. 2, 69) but judging from frequent archaeological finds of belt plates (see, first of all, in Penjikent61) the real picture was just the opposite.
Besides, aristocrats (dikhans) from the ruler's suite, according to the ancient Persian tradition (Curt. Hist. Alex. 3.3.17) wore belts of gold62, separate parts of which (being joint together with hinges or chains) were incrusted with precious stones; judging from one depiction in Afrasiab63, the latter were blue and white, i.e. they could be made of lapis-lazuli (so much loved in Sogd) and large pearls.
Female belts are usually presented in depictions as narrow ribbons, evidently of fabric. Girls could wear plate-decorated belts with square gilded (?) plaques (premises VI/41) from time to time. The goddess in the 6th c. depiction from premises II/5 (pl. 3, 37) has a black fabric belt also decorated with square golden plaques, but placed between them in three tiers.
Shoes with a triangular cut were the most rare type (it obviously meant they were cut of one piece of leather with a stitched in round tongue (pl. 2, 79).
One more type - half-length boots - trousers were sometimes stuck into them (but more often trousers were worn over boots). The boots of noble people often had a top edge stripe turned outside, including a handing down festoon ribbon (pl. 2, 85a). On the northern wall of premises IV in shahristan in several cases boots have extremely long sharpened toes (pl. 2, 85a-b); the tip of the toe sometimes being striped (pl. 2, 79).
Very high boots with sharp toes (almost up to the knee) were popular, their top edge being horizontal or according to late Sasanian tradition having a triangular projection64 and sometimes being tightened with a ribbon in a bow at ankles (pl. 2, 91). Obviously, trousers were always stuck into them. There has been preserved an authentic example of such a boot, made of thin leather, dyed brown, with stamped decor in the sacred cave of Kuhi Surkh (pl. 2, 88).
Luxurious sandals of goddesses (the 6th c.) from premises II/5 made of black leather, decorated with stitched on pearls and fastened with a bow at the instep65, probably do not have anything in common with real Sogdian patterns. At the same time according to the data of Narshahi only footwear and stockings of Bukhara queen, embroidered with gold thread and decorated with precious stones were evaluated in 200 000 dirhams by Arabs in 676. The main type of foot-wear were half-length boots (pl. 1, 40; pl. 3, 42). In one case we see high boots in a dancer depiction on ossuary from Kanka (pl. 3, 40).
They are documented in a great number of depictions and are various enough. A short hair-cut without parting prevailed, men usually shaved their faces. Beards were rare (usually wedge-shaped; pl.1, 6; pl. 2, 15,16) both for aged and young people. As to moustaches, they are known to be narrow - of different types, usually short (pl. 1, 6,15,17; pl. 2, 34) very seldom - turned up (pl. 1, 18; pl. 2, 31) or long hanging ones (pl. 2, 25). Haircuts without parting in the middle; the hair was cut on the forehead, behind ears being longer. Very often having their hair cut, men left V-shaped locks at ears (pl. 2, 23,25) Youths and men in a later period used to have one thin lock at temples (pl. 2, 7,21) Now and then the hair was cured all over the head (the priest: pl. 2,19; the god: pl. 1, 16) or only on the sides (pl. 2, 15) or at the ends (pl. 1, 15). A very short hair-cut is rare and known for youths (pl. 1, 16; pl. 2, 6a,23,33a) in a number of cases - for rulers (pl. 2, 20,32) and in one case - for a bare-footed adorant in front of the goddess (pl. 2, 34) (he has his hair “bobbed”- very shortly, perhaps, it is connected with some vow). Sometimes there is a short “sharp” lock on the forehead (pl. 2, 20-21). More long hair, slightly curled at the ends, or without curling, was youths' habit (pl. 1, 3,18; pl. 2, 18,22). Haircuts without parting were sometimes accomplished with several thin, but long plaits (pl. 2, 5,13,30). There were 6,4 or 2 plaits. The horseman from Varakhsha has two short plaits in cylinder cases having the rest of the hair cut very shortly66. Probably, analogous miniature plaits but without cases are seen in the depiction of a young priest, driving sacred geese, in the “Hall of Ambassadors”67. The ruler of Samarkand also wore plaits in Turkic manner in the 7th c. According to the evidence of “Pei shih”, it must have been the sequence of Turkic pressure (compare: approximately at the same time, in 590 the West Turks' influence on Turfan ruler K'iu Peya in order to adopt male long-sleeved-coats and hair-cuts with plaits68).
Sometimes the hair at the top of the head was gathered in a small bun (pl. 2, 17). For the later period the following original way of youth' and men' hair decorating is typical: a hair lock was put into a gold (gilded) tube, narrowing in its upper part. In a number of cases such a tube could be not open and have a small ball at the end (pl. 2, 7-8), but more often it was open and the lock hang a little from above its upper end (pl. 2, 10-10a). Such a hair cut was sometimes braced with a head band and accomplished with a short fringe, which could lie above the band (pl. 2, 10a) or under it (the painting in premises IV of shahristan). Analogous hair-cuts were traditional for Iranian-speaking nomads of Eurasia (Early Scythians, Pazyrykians) in Achaemenian epoch69. Such a hair-cut with a tube is often mistaken for some original battle helmet in spite of elaborately depicted structure of combed hair and a fringe hanging above the band.
Haircuts with parting in the middle are very rare. Youths and priests had long (to shoulders) hair, at that (pl. 2, 22,26); also with sharp wedge-shaped locks at ears.
An extremely short haircut is also known in Ustrushana (pl. 2, 16a) or the long hair is gathered into a complex roll at the top of the head (pl. 2, 16b). In another case a youth has his hair curled at the ends on the sides (pl. 2, 20).
Girls and young women usually had braids. In the 6th c. and later (to a smaller degree) they wore two braids and parting in the middle. The goddess in premises II/5 wears short braids ending in rectangular cases with a line of pendants (pl. 3, 15). Goddess in one of terracotta wear braids obviously tied with ribbons (pl. 1, 33); goddess in another one have beads of pearls in their braids (pl. 1, 32). A dancer depicted on the ossuary from Ak-Kurgan wears long braids, having a long waving ribbon fastened with a hair pin (?) to the back of her head and reminding late Sasanian dress shoulder-straps (pl. 3, 9)70. The goddess of Moon has thickenings at the ends of her braids, two small curls are seen above her forehead (pl. 3, 1). A mourner from temple I wears her hair as if unplaited (pl. 3, 32).
At a later period wearing of four braids of different length by girls and young women prevailed. A line of beads of pearls could also be interwoven with them (pl. 3, 12). We can see a maiden-warrior with long thin braids (pl. 3, 10), there are also shorter ones (pl. 3, 8). A coiffure with two long and two short braids is presented in complex XVI/A (pl. 3, 4); two short braids with thickenings at the ends were combined with four long ones in complex VI/41 (pl. 3, 7) - the habit being known in Western Turkestan from the Bronze Age to the 20th c.71. In both above-mentioned cases the braids were accomplished with a bun of hair decorated either with a bow in Sasanian way (pl. 3, 4), or a composition of large gold (?) flowers (pl. 3, 7), or a low white conic tube. To some extent, it coincides with the information of “Pei shih” and “Tang shu” that the wife of Samarkand ruler and other noble ladies wore their hair in a bun, covered with black cloth, decorated with gold flowers72.
Coiffures with much shorter hair reaching the back of the head are also known. The hair did not have any parting and sometimes was tied with headbands (pl. 3, 5,16); it could also be combed backwards (pl. 3, 6); cut at the level of the back of the head (pl. 3, 5). In one case there are two extremely thin strait locks coming down from the temples (pl. 3, 11).
Make-up and tatooing
We have practically no information. Only the goddess of Moon in pre-Arabic time had a large black dot painted on the forehead (pl. 3, 1). Male tatooing is presented on the face of a personage on one of late terracotta73. There are three short vertical lines on each cheek (it is a very ancient design of a tattoo known to nomads of Eurasia as long ago as the 3-nd c. BC: the ring from barrow Issyk in Semirechye, Sarmatian phalerae from Balakleya74.
Probably, the opinion of I.B. Bentovitch and N.P. Lobachëva about the prevailing of “tunic-like way” of cutting without shoulder, seams, is right75. Kaftans were sometimes quilted, as we see in depiction of musicians and women-dancers on the late ossuary from Ak-Kurgan (pl. 2, 38; pl. 3, 21). They could have a sewn on pleated hem (pl. 2, 41). The fabric on early examples was often beveled at the collar, sometimes, at the lower edge of coat-breasts (pl. 1, 37-38; pl. 2, 41).
Non-thrown-open clothing with cuts on sides, according to N.P. Lobachëva was cut out with the help of widening side gores - attached to the straight central details76. In the 5th -6th cc. there used to be a sewn-on hem of non-thrown-open male clothing, decorated with two vertical stripes (pl. 2, 50,59); for women (goddesses) the hem is marked with decor on gala-shirts (pl. 3, 24,29). The hem attached at the waist can be seen in a priest depiction (pl. 3, 52). A wide hem often had side cuts of different length (sometimes with additional cut in the center: pl. 1, 23). In Bukharian Sogd (Varakhsha) the male non-thrown-open clothing have an attached breast part is documented (pl. 2, 53). A long dress having sewn-on breast part and a hem widening a lot to the lower edge with the help of gores (pl. 3, 27a) is known for girls-musicians. Male and female trousers were of similar cutting out and rather narrow. The front seam of female trousers was never stitched in its lower part and had a triangle cut.
For half-length boots the following details are usually marked out: separating the top and the lower part of the boot (pl. 2, 84-85), the seam separating the toe from the sole and the heel is ornamented - with a special small square mark (pl. 2, 85b). In the depictions of high boots a vertical, lateral seam on the top part was usually underlined (pl. 2, 87-88,90); the seam separating the top part from the lower one (pl. 2, 86,92,96) and from time to time - the seam of the sole (pl. 2, 96).
The manner of clothes wearing
Coat-breasts of male kaftans were fastened differently. They were often fastened completely excluding the upper part, but, sometimes, on the contrary, they were fastened in their upper part only (dancer: pl. 2, 87) or with the help of the belt (pl. 1, 19-20; pl. 2, 41). They are often wrapped over to the left (usually not deep - just according to the width of coat-breasts trimming decor (pl.1, 21; pl. 2, 35-36,38,44,47,51). But rather seldom the «unnatural» type of right-sided wrapping of the kaftan is met (a warrior from premises VI/1 in Penjikent - pl. 2, 34). Sitting personages sometimes wore kaftans unfastened (pl. 2, 39). A worker could tie the right coat-breast to the belt, to illuminate interference77; a sitting personage could wear it so loosely as to show his left shoulder (premises VI/1378).
Female thrown-open clothing was often fastened only in the middle part (there was no belt in this case judging from terracotta images) (pl. 3, 21,37-39), sleeved coats were often thrown over shoulders (pl. 3, 17-18). Only the folds of long coats were worn wrapped over: the usual variant was - from the right to the left (pl. 3, 20), a noble adorant from premises VII/24 in Penjikent has a coat with folds wrapped over to the right but not very deeply (pl. 3, 17). A female-dancer on the ossuary from Ak-Kurgan has a very long coat, fastened on the breast only and opening her body up to the level of genitalia79 80.
The sleeves of male non-thrown-open clothes are worn rolled up a little above elbows (premises VII/1181). A priest in one case has only the very edge of his sleeves rolled up (pl. 2, 46). A running huntsman (of common people) in premises VI/4782 depicted in the moment of hunting wears his upper garment fastened at hips and sleeves stuck under his belt. More often, both male and female troursers were worn over low boots (if they were half-length) and stuck in, in case of high boots. But sometimes male trousers were worn stuck in even in case of shoes (warriors from premises VI/1: pl. 2, 79) or were fixed with foot-straps over shoes (pl. 2, 80). A noble adorant while worshipping gods wore his sash untied with the ends hanging down loosely (which was done judging from ethnographical materials, only as an exception as it was considered dangerous for the master's life83.
As a rule the main color range contained three colors (for example, a captive in the wall-painting from premises VI/13: the upper shoulder garment is blue, the trousers are yellow). In polychromic silk fabrics (including fabrics with pearl medallions) of supposed ethnical Sogdians in Afrasiab84 we see the combination of white, red and blue colors, the first one prevailing. Only sometimes (for example, the clothes of Bukhara ruler in Varakhsha; premises VI/13) we meet monochromic principle. The clothing is yellow (shoulder, belt garments and foot-wear of personages in wall-painting in premises VI/4185 or - white with gold brocade (?) edging for Sogdians-interpreters (personages 7 and 20) on the western wall in the “Hall of Ambassadors” in Afrasiab. The edging of expensive polychromic imported silk with flower pattern or medallions of pearls (the latter often being white with red rimming) played a very important role in general color range.
The main colors of male shoulder clothing were: red with white edging (pl. 2, 5786; premises VI/1, VI/41, VII/13, XVI/10 and XXI/1 in Penjikent) or black, with yellow edging at that (premises I/10, II/A, VI/26) and yellow with red edging or with red cuffs and gray coat breast only (pl. 2, 3987); in isolated cases - black with also black edging having white dots (premises VI/1), pink (pl. 2, 4488), white (premises II/5), sometimes with blue lapels and lining (pl. 2, 41) or with red edging89, with green edging (premises VI/41). Or it was dark-green with white (more seldom golden) edging or cuffs (pl. 2, 36; premises VI/41, XVI/10, XXI/1) and at last made of patterned silk all over (premises VI/41; Afrasiab90). In other words, the color range of kaftans was very various, 6 different colors being rather frequent. The kaftan lining was usually of red or yellow colors.
Of course, the priest at the altar in premises I/10 wore non-thrown-open clothing of white color (pl. 2, 52); it is mainly white (except a narrow patterned silk edging) in the depiction of clergymen with face bands - padam, brining gift horses and geese of Changanians in the “Hall of Ambassadors” in Afrasiab91. But in the first case not only the priest was clad in white, either were all the praying people.
The main colors of female sleeved coats: black with blue edging; frequent cases of polychromic fabrics (premises VI/8). As to dresses, they were: red (with a yellow collar and blue cuffs) (pl. 3, 30) or brown (pl. 3, 24), white (pl. 3, 26-27), black with a white attached breast part (a goddess from temple II, the 6th c.92); grayish-green (the woman-mourner, the 6th c.; pl. 3, 32), yellow with blue cuffs (premises VI/8 - a girl); shirts were: pink with a white attached hem (pl. 3, 24).
The trousers of murdered warriors and a maiden-warrior in the epic scene are red (in one case white with a red edging of medallions) in the upper part and orange trouser-legs (the girl also has additional narrow horizontal blue stripes) (pl. 2,75; pl. 3, 39) one of goddesses has red trousers with a black vertical line on trouser-legs (pl. 3, 42). The lower part of the horse-rider' trousers has not only a patterned edge but a vertical seam in the back part (pl. 3, 93). Acrobats have black edging in their red or white tight shorts on the sides (pl. 2, 77). Rather often the trousers of warriors and aristocrats are yellow with black ornament (pl. 2, 78,80,86); white ones with black ornament are also met (pl. 2, 81). In other words, three variants of the main color of trousers prevail: red/scarlet, yellow/orange and white often with black pattern.
Male cone-shaped headdresses are white or red (pl. 2, 3-4). Feasting men in premises I/10 have green almond twigs stuck in cap-bands, wreaths of large flowers. The belt of a goddess from premises II/5 is black with gold plaques, and the belt of a god in the same complex is red.
Male high boots could be white with a yellow vertical stripe (pl. 2, 95) or they could have white lower part and yellow top part (pl. 2, 92), pink (pl. 2, 91), yellow, brown (pl. 2, 88) or black in Turkic way (pl. 2, 37,83). Half-length boots were painted black or (seldom) white.
Silhouette and decorative principles
For both sexes the silhouette in a later period was close to the body contour and practically had no projecting elements. On the whole, the clothes were narrow and tight, that is clearly seen especially on sitting figures (creases on sleeves are depicted only occasionally). In the 7th- the 1st half of the 8th c. male silhouette included widening in shoulders (the belt made a slim figure even narrow in the waist, and the hem with cuts widened it only a bit, sleeves, trousers, boots - narrowed to their ends). Female clothes silhouette was usually close to male type (similarly narrow, belted and was accomplished with hanging braids). Sometimes only noble ladies had another silhouette due to cloaks or a sleeve-coat worn thrown over the shoulders and dresses having flounces or frills.
Coat-breasts of male kaftans could be decorated with dotted fabrics (pl. 2, 45) or a line of round plaques (pl. 1, 19). In later complexes there is a case when only the upper part (from the neck to the belt) was edged (pl. 2, 36).The coat-breasts of female kaftans and sleeved coats sometimes were decorated with a row of square plaques, a zigzagging line (pl. 1, 36; pl. 3, 22) or a stripe of patterned fabric (pl. 3, 17-18). In the 6th c. and the beginning of the 7th c. the clothes of nobility were sometimes made all over of imported Persian or local fabrics with medallions (men: Afrasiab93, Penjikent94; women: Penjikent95) or flowery ornaments ( female sleeved coats and cloaks: premises II/5,VII/24 ). As the main material of shoulder clothes following fabrics were used: net-work patterned (pl. 3, 6), usually with a flower rosette or a circle in each square, for women, also - fabrics with a flowery rosette, sometimes in a circle (premises II/5, VI/8); kings used fabrics decorated with flower buds (premises III/6, VI/1). We also know about cloaks made of striped fabrics (personages playing the oriental game resembling European draughts96).
There is a depiction of the 6-th c. in temple II of a god in a non-thrown-open upper garment with a very peculiar forming of the hem (pl. 2, 49). It consists of a series of large triangles stitched together as if in rough; those of them placed base down are ornamented with a vertical line of decor with small rhombs. Another god in the same temple has a scalloped hem edge of his shirt decorated with gold disks which are fastened in trios to each half-oval projection with the help of a small chain (?) (pl. 2, 64). The collar of non-thrown-open clothes was most often decorated with a stripe of fabric of another color differing from the main color range (the wider the color - the wider the stripe of decor). For kings, an epic hero-horseman, noble warriors the collar of clothes with short sleeves in a later period was accomplished with shoulder-straps (pl. 2, 54-5697). A young mourned over god in temple II has a half-oval neck ending with a stripe of embroidery, edged with a line of vertical 'sticks' each having a circle at the end (pl. 2, 58). A rather similar decorative inset but the collar having no neck-cut is presented in terracotta of a 'mourner' (pl. 1, 25a). A triangular neck of the collar in the terracotta image of a musician is decorated with a stripe of decor with the motif of a creeping vine (pl. 1, 25). The collar of the short shirt of the god in the late painting in premises 11 of temple II (pl. 2, 64) is decorated with a line of square plaques (?), which has analogies in female clothes of Sogd even in Kushanian time (pl. 5, 31,33). The attached breast part of the ruler's garment in Varakhsha is edged with stripes of colored fabric (pl. 2, 53).
Short sleeves of upper shirts, beveled to the outsides (pl. 2, 49, 59), decorated with a line of square incrusted (?) plaques; such decor is known for female upper shirts (a dancer with a sword: pl. 3, 19). Probably, it was the influence of Heptalites political domination in the region at that time (there is a witness of Chinese sources concerning 'short sleeves, decorated with gold and precious stones' though in long clothes, not in short ones). A high-cuffed sleeve becomes a very characteristic feature in Sogd in the 6th c. and, especially, later (pl. 2, 39-40,42-43,51,54, 56a,60,62). According to N.P. Lobachëva this Late Sasanian element98 was borrowed by Turks from Sogdians99. Cuffs where made of bright fabrics (often with flower ornaments and red medallions of pearls on the white background), noble people wore them covered all over with gold brocade. Long sleeves of under shirts both in male and female clothes in the 6th c. were sometimes three-colored - made of horizontal parts of different colors (coming from top to bottom in this way: black, yellow, gray - pl. 2, 61; pl. 3, 27). The manner to decorate clothes with a wide vertical stripe of bright fabric was spread for both sexes (pl. 2, 37,40, 43, 48; pl. 3, 19), sometimes to the line of the waist only (pl. 2, 51, 60; pl. 3, 26100).
The attached hem of female upper shirts with short sleeves (worn by goddesses) was richly decorated. The decoration could present changing each other vertical stripes and lines of circles (pl. 3, 29) or the imitation of a row of triangular wedges with balls at their ends (pl. 3, 24); sometimes there was a row of half-circles along the hem (pl. 3, 23). The dress collar most often was decorated with a stripe of fabric of a special color; in one case it is documented having a stripe with a line of circles, as in Kushanian time (pl.3, 30; compare pl.5, 34). On girls' upper shirts or dresses we see a vertical stripe, sometimes reaching only the line of hips and sometimes decorated with round plaques (pl. 3, 19, 26, 31), in one case there are additional shoulder-straps, analogous to men's ones (pl. 3, 24). The goddess-harp-player has a line of pearls (?) sewn on along the triangular neck (pl. 3, 24). The lower part of sleeves for goddesses sometimes was made of 2-3 stripes of fabrics of different colors (pl. 3, 28,33). The background of dress and shirt fabrics often presented a large network ( pl.3, 6, 25,27). A high 'Sasanian' cuff of the fabric of one type was used in female clothes as often as in male ones (pl. 3, 19,25-26,30-31). In dresses worn by noble women-adorants under sleeved coats the cuffs of wide sleeves are also high (pl. 3, 17-18).
Men's trousers were ornamented with a stripe of decor along the lower edge of trouser-legs. Besides, there was a tradition to make the upper part and the trouser-legs of fabrics of different color: trouser-legs being visible for everybody were in yellow or white color range and were generally made of more expensive fabrics (the tradition being preserved for mountain Tadjiks for example101). The fabric pattern of trouser-legs was very various: a network of rhombs with a rosette inside (pl.2, 85), vertical zigzag stripes (pl.2, 79-80), lines of dots (pl. 2, 81), sometimes lines of very complex figures (pl. 2, 78), for women - lines of rosettes were often used (pl. 3, 39, 41).
Male cone-shaped headdresses sometimes were fastened in the lower part with a hoop with cross stripes (pl. 2, 5a); the lower edge could also be decorated with a line of round plaques (pl. 1, 4) or there could be a triangle of round plaques (pl. 1, 3). As such a head-dress was, probably, made of four triangular details one of them being decorated with a ribbon having a line of squares (pl. 1, 1). Half-spherical caps could be fastened with a ribbon tied in a bow on the forehead (pl. 1, 11) or was decorated on the sides and on the top with three sewn on circles of colored fabrics (pl. 1, 10). The upper part of the beret, according to the tradition of Parthian-Kushanian time, was decorated with a row of concentric circles, divided with vertical lines (pl. 1, 9).
Men's high-boots were sometimes decorated with a vertical line of curls (pl.2, 87) or a wide dark stripe (pl. 2, 89) along the seam joining top parts of boots. Sometimes top parts of boots were edged with stripes of different width, and the rest of the surface - with small narrow vertical stripes (pl. 2, 86). The real high-boots from Kuhi Surkh cave are printed all over with stripes, placed at a certain angle to the both sides of the seam (joining top boot parts) with different frequency (pl. 2, 88). In one case early examples (premises II/5, an adorant) are tied at ankles with white ribbons with hanging ends in Sasanian way (pl.2, 91).
The esthetic ideal of the ethnos
It is the most original in the later period. For both sexes the clothes were rather tight. Both men and women had lean bodies, rather strong necks but narrow waists and wrists, long thin fingers and narrow long eyes. Men' bodies and faces are often depicted prolonged, the width of shoulders being underlined, with very long thin locks at temples. Trimming played a very important role: nobility abundantly decorated their clothing with lines of pearls and stripes of two-colored patterned fabrics. A special attention was paid to the grace of arms movements, exquisite turning of hands, to the ideally draped clothes on the legs of sitting people. Men of higher estate - dikhans often look unreproachable gentlemen with the refine manners, sometimes, they seem to be even too exquisite; at any case, they are the most refine men in the course of Iranian history.
Sogdians in the art of other countries: the images of the 'Others'
Terracotta of Early Tang China in the 7th - 8th cc. play a special role in singling out the depictions of personages representing concrete peoples of Western Turkestan and Xinjiang. But efforts of different authors to identify these figurines (very often not accompanied by any argumentation) cannot be called successful on the whole. As we know from Chinese sources, ethnical Sogdians and Tokharistians prevailed among the traders from these regions; dancers and musicians were emigrants from Chach (a district in Tashkent to the north from Sogd), from Sogd itself (Samarkand and Bukhara regions) and Kutcha, Kashgar, Turfan (in Xinjang). The problem is that the costume of Chach and Kashgar is practically unknown; the costume of Kuctha is represented on the local depictions not at all by merchants, but more often by aristocrats and service class102. The costume of Sogdian and Tokharistian merchants is practically neither known as well (though some of participants of scenes in Penjikent paintings are at times called «feasting merchants»).
Among Early Tang terracotta known to me I can attribute a many-colored glazed figurine of a merchant on the camel from the collection of Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin as a Sogdian103 with the highest degree of probability (analogous figures started to be made in 50-60-ies of the 7th c. when China had an opportunity of active controlling Sogd through puppet Turkic qaghans). The merchant is depicted in a yellow shirt (with the right sleeve on his raised hand being neatly rolled up ), its hem having triangular side cuts. White trousers, stuck in the undyed (?) brown leather high boots, having a triangular projection under the knee. The hair-dress is cone-shaped and not very high, its top part slightly sloped ahead (a sort of «Phrygian cap»). The merchant has a shirt sharp beard and narrow horizontal trimmed small moustache. The main above described elements quite correspond to the known images of namely Sogdians, though some of them are rather rare (high boots with triangular projections; a narrow horizontal moustache); the color range is also usual for the Sogdian costume (though white trousers were depicted more seldom than yellow or red ones). On the whole, there are no objections against attributing the personage as a Sogdian, and I join the exclusively suggested interpretation of it by the authors of the quoted exhibition catalogue.
Another interesting terracotta from Early Tang comes from the collection of J.G. Mahler, having attributed it quite freely as a figure of «a caravaneer from North-West Iran»104. The tradesman has a number of clothes elements, in such combination being known only in pre-Arabic Sogd: a high cone-shaped cap with a cap-band having a triangular projection above forehead (which is specific only for Sogd; compare: pl. 2, 5), a kaftan with one ( left ) lapel ( also specific for Sogd; compare: pl. 2, 21) and, obviously, an attached wider hem (compare: pl. 1, 21), high boots with a horizontal upper edge. Even the wrap of the kaftan from the left to the right unusual for Western Turkestan of that period is sometimes documented for men-Sogdians (compare: pl. 2, 34).
The third terracotta (of all interesting for me) - a standing man with a rolled carpet under his arm was found in Kashgar and is kept in Royal Ontario Museum, Canada105. This tradesman is attributed as an Arab or a Persian. Meanwhile, all characteristic elements of the costume are typical for Sogd of that period, exactly. It is a sleeved coat with a left-sided lapel (compare: pl. 3, 21) and short, elbow-length, sleeves (compare: pl. 2, 41,45), a cap with a semi-spherical top and a wide cap-band (compare: pl. 1, 7; pl. 2, 6), a belt with one short end hanging down the belly (compare pl. 1, 19-20) and narrow trousers stuck into foot-wear. Carpet trade being Sogdian merchants' business was mentioned as long ago as in famous «Old Sogdian Letters» from Dunhuang, dated back to the 4-th c.106.
On the whole, terracotta of the beginning of Tang dynasty rule, as we see, are very objective and reliable sources on Sogdian clothes (though the images of Sogdians do not make a considerable part of analogous images of «western barbarians»).
Sogd was one of the most important regions included into Great and then Western Qaghanat. Turkization reflected in wearing special turbans by both sexes, kaftans and sleeved coats with two lapels and also in male hair-cuts with 2, 4 or 6 braids and including plate-decorated belts along with large plaques, groups of pairs or fours of small semi-spherical plaques into the general set of ornaments. On the whole, the costume of Sogd in the 6-th - 8-th cc. underwent Turkization in the biggest degree if compared to the costume of any other Iranian-speaking people107.
In costume materials of Sogd in the 6th - the 8th cc. there is a representative number of Sasanian elements. It is no wonder, as notwithstanding the domination of strong nomadic states in the region (Heptalites and later Turkic Qaghanat), Sogd kept close relations with its great neighbor.
In shoulder clothes these elements are as follows: the hem with side cuts with a wide , made of one piece stripe of decor (though in Sogd it had never been designed as in Iran making a «balloon» or a «sagged skirt») and the hem edged with a flounce (for female-dancers ), high cuffs, a vertical stripe of red decor on the white background (compare: a Sasanian vase-ossuary of the 6-th c. from Merv108), high boots with a triangular projection under the knee tied with a bow at the ankles, shoulder medallions which appeared rather late (in their decor they differed from Persian ones, embroidered with gold or cut out of one piece of polychromic silk). A Sogdian priest in the scene of the reception of Chaganian embassy is very significant (the «Hall of Ambassadors» in Afrasiab)109. In his clothes we see a typically Sasanian hem with cuts and shoulder medallions (of gold brocade). In the depictions of gods in the 7th - the 8th cc. in Penjikent we also see royal 'double' trousers with an 'air-pocket' and the belt with two disk-shaped fasteners, tied in a bow of two ribbons with short hanging ends but there is no ground to suppose their real existence in Sogd.
The influence of the costume of Sogd on the costume of other peoples
The costume of Sogd partially influenced the costume of Early Turks. It was reflected, for example, in following: in Afrasiabian painting Turkic officials wore thrown-open and non-thrown-open clothes with (borrowed from Sasanians) high attached cluffs of expensive patterned fabric, one fold of a sleeved coat was fastened to the other with one button on the belly110 111.
The active participation of Sogdians in trading silks and other goods on the routes of Silk Road in the 6th-9th cc. led in a number of cases to the possibility to other peoples (sometimes, very distant) to watch not only the rolls of silk namely but the looks of Sogdians themselves and from time to time to get gifts of ready-made clothes from them (though sharing of precious imported fabrics to smaller pieces by local inhabitants evidently prevailed112). In any case, we can explain the isolated finds in Alanian graves (the North Caucasus, the 8th - the 9th cc.) of male sleeved coats and female fur coats, with the polychromic embroidering imitating the right lapel113, and female fur sleeved coats with rounded coat breasts according to the ancient Sogdian tradition114, we can explain all above mentioned by the influence of examples of Sogdian merchants' clothing.
Keeping to traditions
In Sogd of all elements, which witness keeping to Kushanian traditions in clothing (the 1st - the 3d cc. AD)115 (pls. 4-5), there was practically nothing left to the medieval period.
For both sexes kaftans with rounded lower parts of coat-breasts (which were known as long ago as in Achaemenian time are sometimes documented) (pl. 1,37,39; pl. 2, 41). For women these are scarves and long sleeved coats, worn thrown over shoulders, sometimes (very seldom) these were a very short dress, trousers and shoes.
Diadems with three medallions and the imitation of stuck in feathers were still known. The belt with the 'Knot of Hercules' was depicted in a later time only in rare ritual scenes for gods (pl. 2, 28). Men kept to traditions in hair-cut - short hair without parting with a fringe on the forehead (pl. 2, 11).
The specificity of the costume of Sogdian aristocracy
Unfortunately, the fragmental character of written sources and indefinite social distinction of many depicted personages in wall painting do not allow us to single out the elements of clothes of different ranks of nobility. We can only summarize the information in general and single out the elements which belonged to nobility (dikhans) and rich merchants.
We can refer to them: clothes made all over of patterned silk fabrics and decorated with lines of pearls with shoulder medallions; short mantles, fixed with heavy gold disks at the shoulders; female gala sleeved coat-breasts made of multi-colored expensive fabrics; not-thrown-open garments of the 6th c. with beveled short sleeves; dresses with edging flounces and male garments with 'Sasanian' hems having two side cuts; cross-shaped 'Kushanian' pelerine; Turbans; hair-does with curled hair; gold belts with insets of precious stones for men and saches decorated with pearls for women; female shoes and stockings decorated with gold brocade and precious stones, male half length boots with long sharp toes.
The specificity of the costume of common people
In a later period in Sogd the clothes of professional women-dancers, musicians, acrobats connected with the wishes of noble spectators to a significant degree are presented most of all. Such long, widening down dresses having, an attached breast part (women-musicians) (pl. 5, 27a), 'Sasanian' dresses with a row of flounces along the edge of the hem (pl. 5, 19) and high boots (women-dancers) (pl. 5, 40), quilted long sleeved coats for both sexes (pl. 4,38; pl. 5, 21), tight shirts, of acrobats (pl. 4, 77). Other single common people in folklore scenes have the analogous silhouettes of clothes as nobility do, but they lack rich decoration.
Sometimes, isolated elements of the costume of nobility of one of ancient dynasties are documented for peasants in far away from urban centers many centuries later. Usually, ethnologists undoubtedly interpret these separate analogies as the proofs of the following statement: common people wore such clothes initially and sinchronically with ancient nobility. Unfortunately, the fact may be interpreted in another way (for example: the costume of a neighboring ethnos being borrowed by common people in a later period - the same costume being borrowed.) The correctness of such analogies is a question of vital importance on the whole (as ethnologists, taking interest in ancient epochs, know the costume of early periods to a smaller degree than archaeologists).
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Pl.1. Costume of Sogdians on terracotta of the 5th -8th cc. AD (by Meshkeris, 1989).
1- fig. 93 (12), 94 (12); 2 - Drevnosti, 1985, no 486; 3 - fig. 79 (1a), 179 (b); 4 - fig. 112, zh; 5 - fig. 111 (1 v); 6 - fig. 179 (1); 7 - fig. 135 (1); 8 - fig. 141 (2); 9 - fig. 87 (11); 10 - fig. 87 (9); 11 - fig. 85; 12 - fig. 84 (a); 13 - fig. 95 (7); 14 - fig. 82 (1); 15 - fig. 82 (3); 16 - fig. 80 (a); 17 - fig. 112 (a); 17a, 25a - fig. 96 (1); 19-20 - fig. 146; 21 - fig. 160; 23 - fig. 171; 24, 28 - fig. 116 (1); 25 - fig. 119 (1a); 26 - Marshak, Raspopova, 1994, fig. 13, 16; 27 - fig. 111 (1); 29 - fig. 144 (3); 30 - fig. 155 (a); 31, 36 - figs. 127-128; 32 - Belenizki, 1980, s. 147; 33 - figs. 137-139; 34 - fig. 197; 35 - fig. 125 (1); 37 - Drevnosti, 1985, No 498; 38 - fig. 152; 39 - fig. 124; 40 - fig. 162.
Pl. 2. The male costume of Sogdians (5th - 8th cc. AD).
Abbreviations: Belenitsky, 1973 = B; Belenitzki, 1980 = B80; Drevnosti, 1985 = D; Marshak, Raspopova, Shkoda, 1999 = MRS; Marshak, 1990 = Ma; Marshak, Negmatov, 1996 = MN; Marshak, Raspopova, 1994 = MR; Pugachenkova, 1994 = Р; Raspopova, 1999 = R; Sculptura, 1959 = S; Shishkin, 1963 = Sh; Zhivopis', 1954 = Zh.
1- B, pl. 11; 2, 74a - B, p. 15; 3, 44 - D, No 568; 4, 51 - B, pl. 33; 5, 8, 41, 56, 66 - B, p. 16; 5a, 34, 42 - Ma, fig. 22; 6, 24 - B, s. 110; 6a - Ma, fig. 26; 7, 16, 54, 56, 82, 85 - B, p. 21; 9 - Zh, pl. XII; 10 - B, pl. 26; 10a, 16a, 16b - MN, fig. 34, 44, 46; 11, 60 - B, p. 24; 12, 28 - Zeimal, 1994, fig. 2 (5, 13); 13 - S, pl. XXIV; 14, 79 - B, p. 20; 15 - Zh, pl. IX-X; 18 - B80, taf. 61; 19, 37, 52, 69 - Zh, pl. VIII; 21 - S, pl. XV; 22, 26, 30 - B, p. 12; 17, 55, 93 - B, pl. 10; 23, 48, 70, 83 - D, No 565; 25 - B, pl. 3; 27 - B, p. 24; 29 - B, p. 10; 31 - D, No 595; 32, 53, 71, 86 - Sh, pl. XIV; 33, 45, 76 - B, p. 30; 34, 56a - B, p. 18; 35, 68, 96 - S, pl. IV; 36, 95 - B, pl. 28; 38 - P, fig.4, b; 39 - B, p. 25; 40, 62a - B, p. 28; 42a - Ma, fig. 28; 43 - Zh, pl. XI; 46, 74 - P, fig. 15; 47 - B, pl. 19; 49 - MR, fig. 4, 5, 7; 50, 89 - Zh, pl. XVII; 56b, 84 - B, p. 32; 57 - B, pl. 5; 58 - Zh, pl. ХХ; 59, 61, 65г, 73a, 81, 91 - B, pl. 2; 60 - B, pl. 3; 62, 67 - B, pl. 26; 64 - R, fig. 11; 65 - Ma, fig. 16; 65a - MR, fig. 4; 68a - B80, s. 111; 72, 90 - B, pl. 20; 73 - R, fig. 19; 75 - B, pl. 26; 77 - Zh, pl. XIV ; 78, 80 - B, pl. 23; 85, a-b - drawings of I.A. Arzhantseva; 87 - MR, fig. 82-83; 88 - D, No 598; 92 - S, pl. IV; 94 - MR, fig. 84; 97 - B80, s. 114.
The find spots (besides Penjikent): Varakhsha - 32, 53, 71, 86; Krasnorechensk - 46, 74; Kuhi Surkh - 31, 88; Ak-Kurgan - 38.
Pl. 3. The female costume of Sogdians (5th - 8th cc. AD).
Abbreviations: Belenitsky, 1973 = B; Belenitzki, 1980 = B80; Drevnosti, 1985 = D; Zhivopis', 1954 = Zh; Pugachenkova, 1994 = Р; Sculptura, 1959 = S; Zhivopis', 1954.
1 - D, No 569; 2, 33 - B, p. 12; 3 - D, No 590; 4 - B80, s. 112; 5 - Shishkin, 1963, pl. XIII; 5a - B80, s. 142; 7, 31 - B, pl. 10; 8, 35 - B, pl. 3; 9, 21 - P, fig. 4, b; 10 - B, pl. 26; 11, 24 - B, pl. 16; 12, 16, 20, 30 - S, pl. IX; 13, 32 - Zh, pl. XXI; 14 - B, p. 11-12; 15 - B, pl. 1; 16 - Belenitsky, Marshak, Raspopovs, 1991, fig. 6; 17 - B, p. 30; 18 - B80, s. 111; 19 - B, p. 31; 22 - Zh, pl. XXII; 23 - Marshak, 1990, fig. 16; 25 - B, p. 23; 26, 36 - B, pl. 16; 27, 34, 37, 38, 42 - B, pl. 1; 27a - B, p. 29; 28 - Marshak, Raspopova, Shkoda, 1999, fig. 70; 29 - B, p. 14; 39 - Р, fig. 14; 41 - B, p. 14.
The find spots (besides Penjikent): Ak-Kurgan - 9, 21; Mug mountain - 3; Varakhsha - 5; Kanka - 40.
Pl. 4. The male costume of Sogdians (1th - 3th cc. AD) (by Meshkeris, 1989).
1 - fig. 53 (1); 2 - fig. 14 (b); 3 - fig. 19 (b); 4 - fig. 14 (г); 5, 16, 22 - fig. 43; 6 - fig. 14 (г); 7 - Shishkina, 1994, fig. 6; 8 - fig. 5 (г, д); 9 - fig. 46; 10, 18, 19, 21 - fig. 47; 11- fig. 42; 12 - fig. 44; 13 - fig. 49; 14, 23 - fig. 48; 15 - Shishkina, 1994, fig. 5; 17 - fig. 18 (1-2); 20 - fig. 43.
Pl. 5. The female costume of Sogdians (1th - 3th cc. AD) (by Meshkeris, 1989).
1 - fig. 35; 2 - fig. 41 (2); 3 - fig. 5 (1-2); 4 - fig. 19 (b); 5 - fig. 10 (2); 6 - fig. 72; 7 - fig. 26; 8 - fig. 27 (б); 9 - figs. 32-33, 69; 10 - fig. 28 (1-3); 11 - fig. 22; 12 - fig. 36; 13, 14 - fig. 24; 15 - fig. 31 (1); 16 - figs. 37, 38; 17 - figs. 39 (1), 40 (1); 18 - fig. 19 (б); 19 - fig. 25; 20 - fig. 54; 21 - fig. 20 (b); 22 - fig. 34; 23 - fig. 9 (д); 24 - fig. 17 (б); 25 - figs. 26, 33-34; 26 - fig. 35; 27 - fig. 17 (a); 28 - figs. 34, 36; 29 - fig. 9 (a); 30 - fig. 9 (в); 31 - fig. 20 (в); 32, 34 - fig. 33; 33 - fig. 36; 35 - fig. 31 (1); 36 - fig. 20 (1); 37 - fig. 73; 38 - fig. 56; 39 - figs. 37, 54; 40 - fig. 34; 41 - fig. 20 (в); 42 - fig. 20 (б); 43 - fig. 73.
1 Yatsenko, 2002, 344-351, 408-436, 500, 517, 524, 567, 587, 597.
2 Lobachëva, 1979.
3 Maitdinova, 1983; 1987; Lapiere, 1990.
4 Bentovitch, 1980.
5 Naymark, 1992.
6 Belenitsky, Raspopova, 1980.
7 Raspopova, 1965; 1999, figs. 22-25.
8 Arzhantseva, 1987.
9 See, first of all: Zhivopis', 1954; Skulptura, 1959; Belenitsky, 1973; 1980; Drevnosti, 1985, No 565-577; Marshak, 1990; Marshak, Raspopova, 1994; Marshak, Raspopova, 2001, fig. 84.
10 Al'baum, 1975; Arzhansteva, 1987; Mode, 1993; Yatsenko, 1995; Marshak, 1994.
11 Negmatov, 1973; Voronina, Negmatov, 1975; Oxus, 1989, kat. No 88-91; Marshak, Negmatov, 1996.
12 Shishkin, 1963.
13 Belenitsky, Marshak, 1979; Azarpay, 1981; Mode, 1993; Yatsenko, 1995; 2002b; Kosolapov, Marshak, 1999, 15-17.
14 Meshkeris, 1977;1989.
15 Adylov, 1983; Ahrarov, Usmanova, 1990.
16 Pavchinskaya, 1994, fig. 6b.
17 Dresvyanskaya, 1983; Pavchinskaya, 1987; 1990; Pugachenkova, 1994.
18 Smirnova, 1981; Zeimal', 1994.
19 Marshak, 1971; 1986.
20 Lapiere, 1990, 52.
21 Bichurin, 1950, 271, 310.
22 Shefer, 1981, 85, 264, 270, 280.
23 Kurat, 1948; at-Tabari, 1889; Narshahi, 1897.
24 Bentovitch, 1956; Vinokurova, 1957; Belenitsky, Bentovitch, Livshits, 1963.
25 See also: Belenitsky, 1973, pl. 19; Lobachëva, 1979, fig. 1 (1-2).
26 Lobachëva, 1979, 21.
27 See also: Marshak, 1990, figs. 23, 29.
28 Below, in case of only the number of the premises is mentioned, the find is from Penjikent.
29 Gorelik, 1985, pl. II, 3.
30 See also: Belenitzki, 1980, 197.
31 Bentovitch, 1980, 200.
32 About such projections, with their number always divisible by 3, see: Prokof'eva, 1971, 13, 16; fig. 6; Yatsenko, 1993, 79-80; Yatsenko, 2002, 118, 205, 250, 323.
33 Negmatov, 1973, fig. 15, personage 6.
34 Bentovich, 1980, 198.
35 Pisarchik, 1979, fig. 1.
36 Marshak, Raspopova, 1994, figs. 13, 16.
37 Belenitzki, 1980, taf. 38).
38 Bentovitch, 1980, 208.
39 Ibid., fig. 4, b.
40 Al'baum, 1975, pl. XXVII.
41 See the reconstruction: ibid., fig. 12, No 11.
42 Sukhareva, 1954, 325.
43 Bichurin, 1950, 310.
44 See also: Zhivopis', 1954, pl. VII.
45 Bichurin, 1950, 271, 310.
46 Bentovitch, 1956; Drevnosti, 1985, 243, No 590.
47 In my dissertation such headdresses are not the subject under research for any Iranian-speaking peoples as they have been studied properly by numismatists and art historians.
48 Yatsenko, 2002, 211 (since 2 BC - 4 AD: Sellwood, 1981, type 58).
49 Bentovitch, 1980, 209.
50 Al'baum, 1975, fig. 7, personage 22.
51 Bichurin, 1950, 271.
52 Bentovitch, 1980, fig. 3, ж.
53 Compare: Ibid., 209.
54 Belenitzki, 1980, 118.
55 Maitdinova, 1983, 52.
56 See also: Negmatov, 1973, fig. 13.
57 Belenitsky, Raspopova, 1980, fig. 4.
58 Shishkin, 1963, pl. XIV.
59 Turgunov, 1992, fig. 9-10.
60 Personage 11 on the southern wall (unpublished drawings of G.V. Shishkina group in 1978).
61 Raspopova, 1999, figs. 22-26.
62 Narshahi, 1897, 15; Belenitsky, Raspopova, 1980, 213.
63 Al'baum, 1975, pl. V.
64 Since the 2-nd half of the 5th c.: Yatsenko, 2002, 393. Compare in Late Parthian Iran: Kuh-i Kamalvand (Vanden Berghe, 1984, fig. 5).
65 Belenitsky, 1973, pl. 1.
66 Shishkin, 1963, pl. XVIII.
67 Al'baum, 1975, pl. XXV.
68 Yatsenko, 2000, 361, 363.
69 Yatsenko, 2002, 100, 136, 165.
70 A.I. Naymark considers its hanging ands being two more braids of unusual type (Naymark, 1992, 754).
71 Sukhareva, 1954, 313.
72 Bichurin, 1950, 271, 310.
73 Meshkeris, 1977, fig. 10, 2.
74 Yatsenko, 2002, 296.
75 Lobachëva, 1979, 46; Bentovitch, 1980, 198, 211.
76 Lobachëva, 1979, 21.
77 Marshak, 1990, fig. 23.
78 Belenitsky, 1973, fig. on 25.
79 Pugachenkova, 1994, fig. 4, b.
80 Compare: there used to be a popular girl' erotic dance in neighboring Chahch (and also in China); the dance ended with stripping to the waist (Shefer, 1981, 84-85).
81 Belenitsky, 1973, 27.
83 Yatsenko, 2002, 599-600.
84 Al baum, 1975, pl. XXVII, personage 11 on the southern wall.
85 Belenitsky, 1973, pls. 15-17.
86 See also: Zhivopis', 1954, pl. XVI.
87 See also: Al'baum, 1975, pls. XI, XIX; Drevnosti, 1985, No 575.
88 See also: Zhivopis', 1954, pl. XVI.
89 Drevnosti, 1985, No 576.
90 Al'baum, 1975, pl. XIX.
91 Ibid., pl. XXVII.
92 Zhivopis', 1954, pl. XXIII.
93 Al'baum, 1975, pl. XIX.
94 Belenitsky, 1973, pl. 20.
95 Sculptura, 1959, pl. XXIII.
96 Belenitsky, 1973, 20.
97 See also: Ibid., pl. 26.
98 Yatsenko, 2002, 386 (since the bound of the 6-7th cc., Taq-i Bostan: Fukai and oth., 1984, fig. 45).
99 Compare: Lobachëva, 1979, 25.
100 See also: Negmatov, 1973, fig. 14.
101 Rassudova, 1970, 30.
102 Yatsenko, 2000, 315-349.
103 Heirs, 1997, pl. 6.
104 Mahler, 1959, pl. XIX, a-c.
105 Courier of UNESCO, 23.
106 See for example: Harmatta, 1979.
107 Yatsenko, 2002, 500.
108 Lukonin, 1977, 215.
109 Al'baum, 1975, pl. XXVII, personage 11 on the southern wall.
110 Al'baum, 1975, fig. 5, personage 5; Yatsenko, 2002b, pl. 1, 14.
111 The manner was specific for Sogdians beginning from Achaemenian time (Gorelik, 1985, pl. II, 3) and was kept in the children costume of mountain Tadzhiks (Rassudova, 1970, fig. 8).
112 See for example: Ierusalimskaya, 1992, 6.
113 Compare: Ierusalimskaya, 1978, 159; fig. 12.
114 Compare: Orfinskaya, 2001, fig. 2 (4).
115 Yatsenko, 2002, 351-358, pls. 152-153.
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