cais1.gif (153930 bytes)

CAIS Persian Text.gif (34162 bytes)

CAIS

The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies


 Persian Section.PNG (9914 bytes)


Home


About CAIS


Articles


Daily News


News Archive


Announcements


CAIS Seminars


Image Library


Copyright


Disclaimer


Submission


Search


Contact Us


Links


Facebook-Button.jpg (107165 bytes)




THE PERSIAN GULF

THE LARGEST COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL MAPS OF THE PERSIAN GULF


 

 

The Persian Gulf (24°-30°30′N, 48°-56°30′E) is a shallow, epi-continental sea approximately 1,000 km long and 200-350 km wide, narrowing to about 60 km across at the Straits of Hormuz (Hormoz). Depths average only 35 m (max. ca. 100 m), and a rate of 37-40% salinity is considered high.

 

The body of water lies between the Iranian Plateau and the Arabian Peninsular and has been known - in maps, literature and official usage - as the 'Persian Gulf' for more than two and half millenia. Even after the emergence of Islam, the Arab world knew it as the "Bahr Fars" (the Persian Sea) and 'al-Khalij al-Ajam' (Persian Gulf) extended to what is today known as the Oman Sea.

 

The tide of Arab opinion on the question shifted only in the 1960s; ironically among the major drivers of the movement for change were Arab perceptions that Iran had supported Israel during the Arab-Israeli war of 1973.

 

The name Persian Gulf is still recognised by most governments, even some arms of the US government. It is also recognised as the legal international standard by the United Nations, which says: "any change, destruction, or alteration of the names registered in historical deeds and maps is like the destruction of ancient works and is considered as an improper action. Therefore, the names of geographical features profiting from a unique historical identity, should not be utilised as political instruments in reaching a political, tribal, and racial objective, or in any clash with national interests and other's values."

 

 

 

United_Nationas_Map_of_Iran_2004WM.PNG (510675 bytes)

United Nations Official map of Iran

 

UNPersian Gulf.jpg (311167 bytes)

United Nations Official documents on the correct usage of the name of the Persian Gulf (August 18, 1994)

 

UN Persian Gulf 1.jpg (354196 bytes)

United Nations Official documents on the correct usage of the name of the Persian Gulf

(May 14, 1999)

 

121 historical maps with reference to the Persian Gulf

from 6th to 20th century

(Click to enlarge)

Please note that the file sizes of some maps are very large and may take time to upload,

depending upon your Internet connection.

 

01

Map_of_the_World_6th_century_Original_and_reconstWM.png (8199173 bytes)

One of the oldest surviving European maps from Byzantine era with the word 'Sinus Persicus'

c. 6th century CE

 

02

Reconstruction_Avezac_of_a_world_map_by_Anonymous_Geographer_from_Ravenna_c_700WM.png (1164541 bytes)

Reconstruction Avezac of a world map by Anonymous Geographer from Ravenna

c. 700 CE

03

Reconstruction_Avezac_of_a_world_map_by_Anonymous_Geographer_from_Ravenna1_c_700WM.png (1445001 bytes)

Reconstruction Avezac of a world map by Anonymous Geographer from Ravenna

c. 700 CE

04

Istakhri_map_Bahr_Fars.jpg (58299 bytes)

Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, ("Persian sea") in Arabic, from the text of Al-aqalim by the Persian geographer Istakhri

c. 9th century

05

Persian_Gulf_11th_century_Arabic_Manuscript.jpg (44526 bytes)

An Islamic map showing Persian Gulf

c. 320 A.H. (932 CE)

06

Abu_Raihan_Biruni_world_map_of_the_distribution_of_land_and_sea_1029WM.png (802019 bytes)

Abu Raihan Biruni world map of the distribution of land and sea,

c. 1029

07

Persian_Gulfs_Biruni_Map.jpg (48591 bytes)

Haft-Darya (seen Seas)

c. 1029

08

Saint_Sever_map_pf_the_world_after_Beatus_1030WM.png (4724049 bytes)

 

Saint_Sever_map_of_the_world_after_Beatus1_1030WM.png (3491952 bytes)

 

Saint Sever map of the world

c. 1030

 

09

Mappa_di_Eratostene-19th_c.jpg (62986 bytes)

Reconstruction of 194 BCE Eratosthenes map

c. 19th Century 

10

Ptolemy_World_Map_15th_Century.jpg (153015 bytes)

A map based on Ptolemy's Geography for comparison. The work uses the phrase Persicus Sinus

c. 15th century 

11

Ptolemaei_Kartor_early_1400WM.png (5339297 bytes)

Dati, La Sphaera of Ptolemaei map.

From the beginning of the c. 1400

12

Ptolemy_Bologna_map1482.jpg (573443 bytes)

Map of the World, Bologna edition of Ptolemy Geographia

c. 1482

13

1482 Ptolemy of the Middle EastWM.png (7980290 bytes)

Ptolemy of the Middle East

c. 1482 

14

Koeln_map_of_Middle_East_1584WM.png (2394210 bytes)

Koeln map of Middle East

c. 1484

15

Arabia_Persian_Gulf_and_Insia_Ocean_1484WM.png (4070663 bytes)

Persian Gulf and Arabia from Claudius Ptolemaeus, Cosmographia, Jacobus Angelus interpres (Bliothèque nationale de France)

c. 1484 

16

Arabia_and_Levant_1484WM.png (5859739 bytes)

Arabia and Levandt from Claudius Ptolemaeus, Cosmographia, Jacobus Angelus interpres (Bliothèque nationale de France)

c. 1484

17

Quater_of_Asia_1486WM.png (4007584 bytes)

Quater of Asia

c. 1486

18

Incunabula_world_map_by_Hartmann_Schedel_1493WM.png (6960172 bytes)

German Map of the World by Hartmann Schedel

c. 1493

19

Danckerts Map of Asia 1500WM.png (7758336 bytes)

Danckerts Map of Asia

c. 1500

20

Ptolemys_world_map_15th_centuryWM.png (17468792 bytes)

Ptolemy's world map (Persicus Sinus)

c. 15th century 

21

Alberto_Cantino_World_Map_1502WM.png (12368184 bytes)

World Map by Alberto Cantino

c. 1502

22

J_Pentiusde_Leucho_map1511.jpg (440507 bytes)

World map from Ptolemy, Geographia. Venice: J.Pentius de Leucho

c. 1511

23

QUINTA_ASIE_TABULA_1513WM.png (4512175 bytes)

Qunita Unita Asie Tabula

c. 1513

24

Pietro_Coppo_map_of_Asia_1520WM.png (16976275 bytes)

Pietro Coppo map of Asia

c. 1520

25

Persian_Gulf_1531.jpg (148223 bytes)

Map denoting Sinus Persicus

c. 1531

26

French_map_1540_Persian_Gulf.jpg (186164 bytes)

French map of Persian Gulf

c. 1540

27

Swiss_map_PG_1540_Basel.jpg (66707 bytes)

Swiss map based on Ptolemy's Geographia

c. 1540

28

Persian_Gulf_Italian_Map1548.jpg (70057 bytes)

Giacomo Gastaldi's map denoted by cartographic historian Gerald Tibbetts as the first "modern" map of the area, denoting 'Golpho de Persia'.

circa 1548

29

Asia_by_Sebastian_Munster_1545WM.png (11164799 bytes)

Asia by Sebastian Munster

c. 1545

30

Arabia_Felice_Nuova_Tavola_1574WM.png (15025215 bytes)

Italian map of Arabia Felice Nuova Tavola

c. 1574

31

Ptolemy_PG_1578.jpg (176354 bytes)

Gerhard Mercator's atlas production from Ptolemy's Geographia, depicting Sinus Arabicus (for Red Sea) and Persicus Sinus (Persian Gulf)

c. 1578 

32

Ortelius_Map_1580.jpg (125335 bytes)

Map by Abraham Ortelius using the term "Persicus" (MAR MESENDIN ol. Sinus Persicus).

c. 1580 

33

1588_Persian_Gulf_Map.jpg (199527 bytes)

Map by Sebastian Munster

c. 1588

34

Asia_by_Heinrich_Bunting_1590WM.png (8491046 bytes)

Asia by Heinrich Bunting

c. 1590

35

Jan_Huygen_Van_Linschoten_1596WM.png (27674732 bytes)

Map of Asia by Jan Huygen Van Linschoten

c. 1596

36

German_map_Matthaus_1598.jpg (220299 bytes)

German map

c. 1598

37

16th_c_PG_ufl.jpg (227742 bytes)

Map of Near East

c. 16th century 

38

Iran_Map_Hondius_1610.jpg (200722 bytes)

Map by Dutch map maker Jodocus Hondius

c. 1610

39

Persici_Sive_Sophorum_Regni_Typus_by_Abraham_Ortelius_1612WM.png (6746502 bytes)

Abraham Ortelius Map of Persia

c. 1612

40

Near_East_William_Hole_1614WM.png (6074123 bytes)

English map of the Near East by William Hole

c. 1614

41

Italian_Map_of_Asia_VII_by_P._and_F._Glignani_-_Padua_ca._1621WM.png (10622263 bytes)

Italian Map of Asia (Table VII) by P. and F. Glignani, Paduaca

c. 1621

42

Italian_Map_of_Asia_V_by_P._and_F._Glignani_-_Padua_ca_1621WM.png (7793184 bytes)

Italian Map of Asia (Table V) by P. and F. Glignani, Padua

c. 1621

43

French_Map_of_Persia_and_independant_terretories_1623WM.png (2323347 bytes)

Persia & Independent Tartarie

c. 1623

44

John_Speed_Map_of_Asia_1626WM.png (14442796 bytes)

John Speed Map of Asia

c. 1626

 

45

Posidonius_map_of_the_world_by_Petrus_Bertius__Melchior_Tavernier_1628WM.png (2483399 bytes)

Greek map of the world by Petrus Bertius & Melchior Tavernier (Sinus Persicus)

c. 1628

46

Ancient Mesopot 1631WM.jpg (492774 bytes)

French map of Ancient Mesopotamia,

c. 1631

 

47

Populi Persarum Arabes 1675.jpg (227361 bytes)

Populi Persarum Arabes

c. 1675

 

48

Asia_by_Gerhard_Mercator_1695WM.png (12979146 bytes)

Asia by Gerhard Mercator

c. 1695

49

Egypt__North_Africa_showing_Ewd_sea_as_the_Persian_Sea_1696WM.png (10598172 bytes)

German Map of Egypt & North Africa showing 'Red sea' as the 'Arabisch Sinus Pars' (The Arabian Sea/Gulf)

c. 1696

50

Map_of_Persian_Gulf_by_John_Thornton_1699WM.png (1168211 bytes)

English map of Persian Gulf by John Thornton

c. 1699

51

PersianGulf_Jansson_17th_c.jpg (53810 bytes)

Jan Jansson's map of the Persian Gulf

c. 17th century

52

Periplus_Latin_Map_17th_centuryWM.png (4456617 bytes)

Periplus Latin Map

c. 17th century

 

53

Spanish_Map_of_the_Europe_1700WM.png (14626401 bytes)

Spanish Map of the Europe

c. 1700

 

54

Italian_Map_of_Africa_1700WM.png (13595002 bytes)

Italian Map of Africa

c. 1700

55

Italian_Map_of_Asia_the_Persian_Gulf_and_Sea_1700WM.png (13568437 bytes)

Italian Map of Asia the Persian Gulf and the Persian Sea (Oman Sea)

c. 1700

 

56

Near_East_and_Europe_by_Guillaume_de_Lisle_1709WM.png (10704311 bytes)

French map of the Near East and Europe by Guillaume de L'isle

c. 1709

57

Das Reich der Perser und der PorthenWM.png (1889183 bytes)

A German Map of the Parthian Empire, Frankfurt

c. 1719

 

58

Persia_Weigel_Christoph_1719WM.png (7392312 bytes)

Persia by Christoph Weigel

c. 1719

 

59

Parthia_by_Allain_Manesson_Mallet_1719WM.png (3297602 bytes)

Parthia by Allain Manesson Mallet

c. 1719

 

60

Iran_e_Bozorg2_1719.jpg (93717 bytes)

World Map

c. 1719

 

61

Persia_Homann_Johann_Baptist__1720WM.png (8045251 bytes)

Persia Homann, Johann Baptist

c. 1720

 

62

Italian_pap_of_Africa_with_Persian_Gulf_and_sea_by_Paolo_Petrina_of_Napolit_1722WM.png (22448775 bytes)

Italian map of Africa with Persian Gulf and teh Persian Sea (Oman Sea) by Paolo Petrina of Napoli

c. 1722

 

63

Africa_by_John_Senex_1728WM.png (5632247 bytes)

Africa by John Senex

c. 1728

 

64

Seutte_Persia_and_Arabia_Geographicus_1730WM.png (59209436 bytes)

Seutter Persia and Arabia Geographicus

c. 1730

 

65

Persia_by_Mattheus_Seutter_1730WM.png (12103202 bytes)

Persia by Mattheus Seutter

c. 1730

 

66

Ottoman_Map_by_Heirs_Homann_Nuremberg_1737WM.png (4751075 bytes)

German map of Ottoman Empire by Heirs Homann, Nuremberg

C. 1737

67

Persian_Gulf_French_map1740.jpg (42609 bytes)

French map of Persia

c. 1740

 

68

Seutter_Map_of_Persia_and_Middle_East_1740WM.png (3983036 bytes)

Seutter Map of Persia and Middle East

c. 1740

 

69

Persia_By_Ch-Cellarius_1747WM.png (5215930 bytes)

Persia By Ch-Cellarius (and the enlarged section)

c. 1747

 

70

Asia_secundum_legitimas_Projectionis_Stereographicae_1744WM.png (10168670 bytes)

British_Map_of_Asia_1808_Persia__sectionWM.png (1725203 bytes)

Asia secundum legitimas Projectionis Stereographicae - In this map the Persian Gulf & the Persian Sea (Oman Sea) and the enlarged section.

c. 1744

 

71

Persia Emanuel Bowen 1747aWM.png (34472007 bytes)

Emanuel Bowen map of Iran (Library of  Congress, USA)

c. 1747

 

72

Persian_Gulf_map_van_keulen_1753WM.png (9488766 bytes)

Iran and Persian Gulf by Van Keulen

c. 1753

 

73

Ottoman_Empire_by_L._Euler_1753_BerlinWM.png (11605340 bytes)

Ottoman Empire by L. Euler, Berlin - The Persian Gulf & the Persian Sea (Oman Sea)

c. 1753 

74

French_Map_of_Arabia_1772WM.png (4713267 bytes)

French Map of Arabia

c. 1772

 

75

Near_East_Thomas_Jefferys_1754WM.png (6792570 bytes)

Near East Thomas Jefferys

c. 1754

 

76

Indian_Ocean_by_Nicolaus_Bellin_1758WM.png (9988506 bytes)

German map of Indian Ocean by Nicolaus Bellin

c. 1758

 

77

Middle-East_Vaugondy_1767WM.png (2179632 bytes)

Middle-East Vaugondy

c. 1767

 

78

English_map_of_Persia_by_John_Gibson_1770WM.png (4341006 bytes)

English map of Persia by John Gibson

c. 1770

 

79

Carte_De_LArabia__Paris_1771WM.png (7111023 bytes)

Carte De L'Arabia, Paris 

c. 1771

 

80

Marine_Map_of_Asia_Paris_1780WM.png (6949189 bytes)

Marine Map of Asia, Paris 

c. 1780

 

81

Persia_and_Garden_Eden_by_Thomas_Bowen_1780WM.png (17695411 bytes)

English map of Persia and the Garden Eden by Thomas Bowen

c. 1780

82

Persian_and_Northern_Asia_by_M_Bonne_1780WM.png (7078177 bytes)

Persian and Northern Asia by M Bonne

c. 1780

 

83

French_map_of_Kingdom_of_Persia_by_M._Bonne_1780WM.png (5338679 bytes)

French map of Kingdom of Persia by M. Bonne

c. 1780

 

84

Italian_map_of_the_Empire_of_Persia_by_Antonio_Zatta_1784WM.png (6221140 bytes)

Italian map of the Empire of Persia by Antonio Zatta

c. 1784

 

85

Tuquie_dAsie_et_Perse_Turkey__Persia_1795WM.png (5781867 bytes)

French map of Turkey & Persia,

c. 1795

86

Map_of_Persia_and_the_Persian_Gulf_1797WM.png (6676377 bytes)

Map of Persia and the Persian Gulf

c. 1797

87

German_map_of_Persia_by_C.G_Reichard_1804WM.png (6691556 bytes)

German map of Persia by C.G. Reichard

c. 1804

88

Asia_Mollo_Tranquillo__1807WM.png (9315321 bytes)

Asia Mollo, Tranquillo

c. 1807

 

89

British_Map_of_Asia_1808WM.png (11217155 bytes)

British Map of Asia_1808_Persia _sectionWM.png (1725203 bytes)

A British map and the enlarged section

c. 1808

 

90

Persia_including_Persian_Gulf_1811WM.png (4248458 bytes)

Persia (including the Persian Gulf's Arab states)

c. 1811

 

91

IranPersianGulf_1820.jpg (73743 bytes)

Map by Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature by Abraham Rees

c. 1820

92

Drury map of Persia 1822WM.png (1624574 bytes)

Drury Map of Persia

c. 1822

 

93

Ancient_Persia_S._D._U._K_1831WM.png (6065606 bytes)

Ancient Persia S. D. U. K.

c. 1831

 

94

Berghaus_Physical_map_of_Indian_Ocean_1840WM.png (21053187 bytes)

Berghaus' Physical map of Indian Ocean

c. 1840

 

95

Berghaus_Physikalischer_Atlas_1841WM.png (24644253 bytes)

Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas

c. 1841

 

96

British Map of the Persian Gulf 1822WM.png (7057616 bytes)

British Map of the Persian Gulf

c. 1822

 

97

Berghaus_map_of_Europe_and_Asia_1842WM.png (25147401 bytes)

Berghaus' map of Europe and Asia

c. 1842

 

98

J. & C. Walker Detailed engraved map of Arabia 1843.jpg (132517 bytes)

British Detailed engraved map by J. & C. Walker

c. 1843

 

99

Persia A K Johnston National Atlas 1843WM.png (10545505 bytes)

British Map of Persia by A K Johnston National Atlas

c. 1843

 

100

Berghaus_Physikalischer_Atlas5_1846WM.png (14377295 bytes)

Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas

c. 1846

 

101

Berghaus_Physikalischer_Atlas4_1847WM.png (44857406 bytes)

Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas

c. 1847

 

102

Hildburghausen_Meyer_1848WM.png (8194780 bytes)

Hildburghausen Meyer 1848_Persia SectionWM.png (1403470 bytes)

Hildburghausen Meyer Map of Asia

c. 1848

 

103

British_map_of_Persia__Kabul_by_Philip_George_and_Son_1852WM.png (5755335 bytes)

British map of Persia & Kabul by Philip George and Son

c. 1852

 

104

JohnTallis_Persia1851.jpg (91284 bytes)

Map of Persia, by John Tallis

c. 1851

 

105

British_School_Atlas_1852WM.jpg (309023 bytes)

British School Atlas

c. 1852

 

106

English_Historical_Textbook_and_Atlas_of_Biblical_Geography_by_Coleman_1854WM.png (11532371 bytes)

English Historical Textbook and Atlas of Biblical Geography by Coleman

c. 1854

107

Coltons Persia and Arabia Map 1855WM.png (2959103 bytes)

Coltons Map of Persia & Arabia

c. 1855

108

hand-book_bible-geography_1870WM.png (3320374 bytes)

Handbook of Bivle Geography Britain

c. 1870

 

109

the-admiralty_nories-navigation_1877_indian-oceanWM.png (3931051 bytes)

The British Admiralty Nories Navigation Map of Indian Ocean

c. 1882

 

110

Persia_1900WM.png (2824282 bytes)

British Map of the Western Asia

c. 1900

 

111

Atlas_of_Ancient_and_Classical_Geography_Samuel_Butller_1907WM.png (12975541 bytes)

Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography, Samuel Butler

c. 1907

 

112

Official_British_Map_of_Asia_1914WM.png (13757226 bytes)

British Map of Asia

c. 1914

 

113

Cairo1908_PG_map.jpg (322580 bytes)

Egyptian Map Africa showing Persian Gulf (al-Khalija al-'Ajam = Iranian Gulf)

c. 1908

114

Cairo1910_PG_map.jpg (476221 bytes)

Egyptian Map of Persian Gulf (al-Khalija al-'Ajam - Iranian Gulf) 

c. 1910

 

115

ancient-middle-east_by_vidal-lablache_atlas-general-histoire-et-geographie_1912WM.png (16707797 bytes)

Vidal Lablache Atlas's Ancient Middle-East

c. 1912

 

116

sundaytimesMap1913.jpg (62490 bytes)

Published in "The Sunday Times" (London) in 1913.

 

117

Persian_Gulf_by_British_Government_Handbook_on_Arabia_1919WM.png (1735027 bytes)

The British Government Handbook on Arabia

c. 1919

 

118

london geographical nstitute 1920WM.png (33161327 bytes)

The Peoples Atlas, London Geographical Institute

c. 1920

 

119

Saudi_map_of_Persian_gulf_1952_Saudi_Aramco.jpg (71041 bytes)

A Saudi ARAMCO map showing the Persian Gulf

c. 1952

 

120

PersianGulfMap_cairo1965.jpg (138032 bytes)

 map of Middle East by Sobhi Abdul-Karim, Cairo

c. 1965

121

Persian-Gulf-Dubai-mus_19th_c.jpg (118902 bytes)

A defaced historical map of the Persian Gulf in  Dubai museum. The word Persian was removed.

 

 

my_Iran.jpg (13682 bytes)

"History is the Light on the Path to Future"

 

Persian_NOT_Farsi_by_Shapour_Suren-Pahlav_3D2.gif (177309 bytes)


 

Encyclopaedia Iranica


BIPS.jpg (15695 bytes)

The British Institute of Persian Studies


"Persepolis Reconstructed"

Persepolis_reconstructed2.jpg (36944 bytes)

Persepolis3D


The British Museum


The Royal

Asiatic Society


Persian_Gulf_Facebook.jpg (1935028 bytes)

The Persian Gulf

Facebook Page




Please use your "Back" button (top left) to return to the previous page

Copyright © 1998-2015 The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS)