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. GANJ-E BÂDÂVARD


 

By: MAHMOUD OMIDSALAR

 

(the treasure brought by the wind), name of one of the eight treasures of the Sasanian Khosrow II Parvêz (r. 591-628 C.E.) according to most Persian sources. The Šahnâma, however, mentions it also among the riches of a much earlier king, the Kayanid Kay Khosrow (ed. Khaleghi, IV, p. 351, v. 2825; Bondârî, I, p. 303). According to the legend, it was the hoard of riches that one of the Byzantine emperors had loaded unto ships to send to Ethiopia (Bal´amî, ed. Bahâr, p. 1091; Jûzjânî, Tabaqât I, p. 167), or some unspecified place (Tabarî, I, p. 1057; Mas´ûdî, Morûj, ed. Pellat, I, sec. 647; Tha´âlebî, Gh, pp. 701-2), when storm drove the ships into the hands of the Persians. The Persians called it Ganj-e bâdâvard (or Ganj-bâdâvar, Ganj-e bâd), because of the manner and means of its delivery. The size of the treasure is reported variously as 1000 ships (Mas´ûdî, loc. cot.; Bal´amî, ed. Bahâr, loc. cit.), or 100 ships, of which thirty were filled with gold and silver, thirty contained silver coins, twenty carried jewels, and twenty others hauled silver artifacts (Jûzjânî, loc. cit.). According to a legend, the treasure also contained the Holy Cross (Tha´âlebî, Gh, p. 702; Tûsî, p. 366).

The Šahnâma, which mentions Ganj-e bâdâvard both as one of the greatest treasures of Kay Khosrow and among the riches of Khosrow Parvêz, offers no explanation for its name. In one instance, the text may be read to mean that Bâdâvar was the name given to a combination of two other treasures in Khosrow Parvêz's possession (Š, Moscow, IX, p. 268, vv. 226-28). In another instance, the epic seems to imply that a certain unnamed treasure was brought to him by the seamen from the sea (Moscow, IX, p. 267, vv. 209-12). Apparently, the occasion of finding this treasure was so momentous that Khosrow Parvêz's famous minstrel, Bârbad (q.v.), composed a song about it (Borhân-e qâte´, ed. Mo´în, p. 1838). This song later gave its name to a musical mode (navâ) that was common even during the Islamic period (e.g., Manûchehrî, p. 17, v. 230, p. 80, v. 1116, pp. 334-35).

 

Bibliography

Bondârî, al-Shâh-nâma, ed. ´A. ´Azzâm, 2 vols. in 1, Tehran, 1349 Š./1970. 

Christensen, Iran Sass., pp. 465, 486. Gardîzî, ed. Habîbî, p. 36. Manûchehrî Dâmghânî, Dîvân-e Manûchehrî Dâmghânî, ed. M. Dabîrsîâqî, Tehran, 1370 Š./1991. 

M. Mohammadî Malâyerî. Târîkh wa farhang-e Èrân dar dawrân-e enteqâl az ´asr-e sâsânî ba ´asr-e eslâmî, 2 vols., Tehran, 1372-75 Š./1993-96. Mojmal, ed. Bahâr, p. 81. 

Mohammad b. Mahmûd b. Ahmad Tûsî, ´, ed. M. Sotûda, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966.

 

 

 

 

 

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Source/Extracted From: Encyclopaedia Iranica

 

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Page Keywords: Aryans, Sasanians, Sassanians, Sassanids, Sasanids, Persians,

 

 

 

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