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Golestan (Gulistan) Treaty


 

Abstract: Treaty of Golestan dated 1813, signed by Russia and Iran (Persia) at Gulistan, an Iranian village in NW Azarbaijan province. It ended the Russo-Persian war that had begun in 1804. Persia ceded the Arran Province forming the present-day state of Azerbaijan and renounced its claim on Georgia and Dagestan.

 

 

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Gulistan Treaty of 1813 (also written Golestan, Gulistan, and Golistan), was a peace treaty between imperial Russia and Iran, signed on October 24 (November 5) in a village of Gulestan in Karabakh at the end of the first Russo-Persian Wars (1804-1813).

 

The treaty was set up by Gore Ouseley of Britain who served as the mediator, and was signed by Haji Mirza Abol Hasan Khan from the Iranian side in 11 chapters.

By this treaty:

  1. Persia (Iran) loses all its territories to the north of Aras River and is forced via this treaty to recognize Russia's authority over them henceforth. These lands include:

  2. All the cities, towns, and villages of Dagestan.

  3. All the cities, towns, and villages of Georgia, including all the villages and towns on the coast of the Black Sea,

  4. Baku in Arran province (now capital of modern Azerbaijan Republic),

  5. Derbent,

  6. Shirvan,

  7. Megrelia,

  8. Karabakh,

  9. Ganja,

  10. Shekin,

  11. Abkhazia,

  12. Mughan,

  13. Imeretia,

  14. Guria,

  15. The khanates of Talysh.

  16. Iran loses all rights to navigate the Caspian Sea, and Russia is granted exclusive rights to station its military fleet in the Caspian Sea.

  17. Both countries agree on the establishment of free trade, with Russians having free access to conduct business anywhere in Iran.

  18. Russia in return promises to support Abbas Mirza as heir to the Persian throne after the death of Fath Ali Shah.

Some historians believe that Russia's annexation of the Transcaucasus territories delivered their population from constant murderous Turkish and invasions on Iranian territories and led to peace and relative economic stability. Others think that the peoples of Transcaucases were deprived of their right for self-determination and forcefully integrated with the Russian Empire, especially the Shiite people of Caucasus who have strong cultural ties with Iran.

Iran officially sees this and the succeeding Turkmanchai treaty as one of Iran's most humiliating treaties ever signed. The treaty is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fath Ali Shah is seen as one of Iran's most incompetent rulers in memory.

 

See also: The Treaty of Turkmanchai

 

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