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Pan-Turanism Takes Aim At Azarbaijan; A Geopolitical Agenda



By: Dr Kaveh Farrokh


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. London: Oxford University Press. See especially pages 125-144.

Zenkovsky, S. A. (1960). Pan-Turkism and Islam in Russia. Cambridge-Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.







Professor Silahi Diker’s Turcocentric theories of Civilization:

And the Whole World was One Language (Ten Thousand Year of the Turks)


Polat Kaya:

Sumerian-Turkish dictionary


Professor Silahi Diker’s offer of Etruscans as Turks:

Etruscans Genetic Study – Turkic World


North American Indians as Turks:

Red Comrades-Turania


Polat Kaya:

Turkish Language and the Native Americans


Turkish origins of Melungians by Mehmet Cakir:

The Melungeons: Genetic, Linguistic, and Historic Evidence of Their Turkish Roots


The notion of Tajiks being Turks:

Oz Turkler


Turkemenistan President, Separmurat Turkmenbashi narrative of Propher Noah as Turkish:

Pan-Turanian claims to Prophet Noah’s origins


Turkish professor Gunseli/Guzide Renda proposes that the Ottoman Sultans are the direct descendants of Adam:

Prof. Guzide Renda tells about the art of portraiture during the Ottoman era in a series of conferences based

on the exhibition “Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600-1600”


Professor G.R.F. Assar:

Parthian Language of the Ancient “Turkish culture?


Kaveh Farrokh:

Parthian is not Turkish




A Georgian website discussing the Persian legacy in the Caucasus:

History of Georgian-Iranian Relations.


A website for the Chehreganli separatist movement:

SANAM (South Azarbaijan Independence Movement)


An Azarbaijani website from Tabriz, Iran. This openly rejects pan-Turanianism and affirms Azarbaijan’s historical, cultural, linguistic and theological bonds with Persia

Welcome to Tabriz, Iran: Land of Nobility and Gallantry




Martin Lee’s article on the political context of the rise of Grey Wolf activism. This was originally published on Monday, May 14, 2001 in the San Francisco Bay Guardian:

When John Paul II Was Shot in St. Peter's Square: Turkish Spy Scandals Shed New Light on Papal Murder Attempt


A very interesting Turkish ultra-nationalist website that also collates many of the beliefs and aims of the BozKurt (Grey Wolves):



Mezopotamya Radio, January 26, 2005

Thousands of Turkmen sent to Iraq by Turkey: report




James C. Helicke’s article on the sale of “Mein Kampf” in Turkey

'Mein Kampf' a Best Seller in Turkey (same report in BBC News)


Document and photographic archives of Armenian 1915 tragedy

Armenian Genocide


Website which explains the Armenian Genocide as a Fraud

Tall Armenian Tale: The Other Side of Falsified Genocide


The scandalous contacts between members of the US government and Turkish officials

Did Speaker Hastert Accept Turkish Bribes to Deny Armenian Genocide and Approve Weapons Sales?


Interesting link of South Azarbaijan Human Rights (S.A.H.R.) organization co-hosted by the Arab separatist Al-Ahwaz organization of southwest Iran:

South Azarbaijan Human Rights (S.A.H.R.)


Asim Oku’s Article on the vulnerability of the Republic of Azerbaijan to separatist movements

Iran Can Blow Up Azarbaijan From Within


The Talysh and Lezgian Independence Movements of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Independence Issues) (Human Rights Issues)


The Revival of the Iranian Right-Wing Kaboud Movement – today known as SUMKA

SUMKA (Hezb-e-Sosialeeste-ye-Melee-ye Kargaran-e Iran)


A Persian language Neo-Nazi site:

Neo Nazi in Iran




The Suleymanoghlu offer of Turkish citizen ship to Rezazadeh, see the following article posted at Payvand News Website:

Suleymanoglu offers Rezazadeh Turkish citizenship






A report by Nick Grace for the Clandestine Radio Intel Web on Israeli sponsorship of the VOSA (Voice of Southern Azarbaijan)

Voice of Southern Azarbaijan


The Moscow News Report on US military assistance to Uzbekistan and Azarbaijan Republic.

Russia in a Hurry to Sell Weapons to Iran


Interesting article by Jason Athanasiadis in the Asia Times on the role of the CIA in trying to dismember Iran and separate Azarbaijan

Stirring the Ethnic Pot (Apr 29, 2005)


Michel Chossudovsky’s article on western objectives in Azarbaijan and the Caspian Sea

Planned US-Israeli Attack on Iran (May 1, 2005)


Greek reports of Turkish attempts at manipulating western scholarship

US Scholars Outraged at Turkish Propaganda


A descriptive website of the activities of the American-Turkish Council (ATC)

The American Turkish Council


Christopher Deliso’s article outlining the influence of the ATC in America

How Foreign Lobbies Imperil America


Hellenic nationalist Page reports on Turkish efforts to influence scholarship

US Scholars Outraged at Turklish Propaganda


Doulatbek Khidirbekughli’sa review on Harvard University’s Eurasian Studies Society (CESS), Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2004

Mysterious Eurasia: Thoughts on Response to Dr. Schoeberlein


A revealing website into Geopolitics and Caspian Sea resources

Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)


Compendium of governmental and academic lobbies

Caspian Sea Region


Greek Protest regarding de-Hellenization of Asia Minor:

Dean Sirigos, Associate, American Hellenic Media Project (AHMP) – letter written to Celator journal on August 2000)


Article by Christopher Bollyn of the American Free Press, outlining British involvement in the Basra False Flag Incidents

Arrest of British Terror Agents in Basra Exposes Source of Iraqi Sectarian Terror Bombing


Arnaud de Borchgrave’s failure to distinguish between religion and nationality on The Washington Times On-line, Aug. 15, 2005

Commentary: Iran's strategy in Iraq


Karen Kelly’s report on Iranian Engineer’s innovations (September 8, 2005)

Engineering professor among world's top innovators: Parham Aarabi recognized for the profound impact of his research on the way we live and work


Fatema Soudavar Farmanfarmaian’s assessment of how short-term politics has resulted in the distortion of scholarship as pertaining to Iranian studies

The Other Terror  (Part I) (Part II)


Farhad Husseinov’s article on the growing democracy movement in the Republic of Azerbaijan

It's Azarbaijan's Turn


Daniel Pipe’s review of books on Kurdish issues website


Political platform for Arab separatism from Iran’s Khuzistan province

The Official Site of Ahwaz and Ahwazi Arabic Revolution (Arabistan) (in Arabic) (in Persian)

(in English)


An academic venue for Ahwaz studies

The Al-Ahwaz studies organization


Kaveh Farrokh’s assessment of anti-Iranian Arab nationalism

Pan-Arabism’s Legacy of Confrontation with Iran (in Persian)


Fatema Soudavar Farmanfarmaian’s assessment of how Iran’s heritage and historical dignity is under assault

Defending Our Turf


Professor William Beeman’s article on geopolitical support for Chehreganli

Rumblings in Azarbaijan -- Bush's Hawks Eye Northern Iran


Professor William Beeman’s article on possible western military cooperation with Chehreganli

U.S. attack on Iran may be in the cards

Professor William Beeman’s article on how false information on Azarbaijan can lead to military conflict

Ignorance on Iran could lead to an Unwise Attack


Interesting article by Professor William O. Beeman on US support for Azarbaijan separatism and Mr. Chehreganli

US Attack on Iran may be in the Cards (June 28, 2005)


Kaveh Afrasiabi’s report on British assessments of Iran’s WMD programs

Building a case, any case, against Iran


Kaveh Afrasiabi’s article on double standards on Iran’s nucluer issues in Asia Times On-line

US media and Iran's Nuclear Threat (May 11, 2005)



Part VI References: Diminishing Petroleum Resources



The Memo to Tony Blair:

“Submission to the Cabinet Office on Energy Policy”, The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre, September 9, 2001.


 In addition to Engdahl (see numerous references in Footnotes 5-6 on p.284 (see References).refer to:

 Heinburg, Richard (2003). The Party’s Over: Oil, water and the Fate of Industrialized Societies. New Society Publishers.


The following three articles in the Guardian newspapers are of interest:

 Meacher, Michael (Senior Blair cabinet member). The War on terrorism is bogus. Guardian (British Newspaper), September 6, 2003.


Wright, George. “Wolfowitz: The Iraq War was About Oil”. Guardian, June 4, 2004.


Ash, Timothy Garten. “Next Stop Syria?” Guardian, January 22, 2004.






A critique of Pan-Turanianism:

Pointless Nationalism: Turanian


Related to the above website is:

Pan-Africanism, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Slavic and Turanian nationalism:

Progressive or reactionary pans?


Grey Wolf inspired pan-Azarbaijan chauvinism, refer to:

From Nonsense to Nationhood: A Dangerous Trajectory of Azarbaijani Nationalism

See also the related link:




Interesting article that also refers to pan-Azarbaijan pan-Turanianism vis a vis Armenia and Iran:

Middle East Journal of International Affairs: Observations of Azarbaijan








[1]Robbins notes that the interpretation of history in Turkey is characterized by rigidity, partly a result of the traumatic period between 1918-1923.  The success of the new republic which arose from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire and the constant eulogizing of Attaturk and those who fought for Turkish independence. See  Philip Robins, Suits and Uniforms: Turkish Foreign Policy Since the Cold War, Hurst & Company, London, p.104.

[1] This quote follows the preface of Mustafa Kemal Attaturk, The Speech, translated and abridged by Onder Renkliyildirim (Istanbul: Metro Publishers), p.4. Also cited in Robins, Philip, 2003, Suits and Uniforms, p.93.

[1] Poulton, H. Top Hat, Grey Wolf and Crescent, 1997, P.110-114. Robins, Philip, 2003, Suits and Uniforms, p.93-95.

[1] The phenomenon of politicians acting as historians first occurred during the Young Turk movement(). Notable are figures such as Ahmed Agaoglu, Yusuf Akcura, Ziya Gokalp, Fuad Korpulu.

[1] Key political figures Agaoglu, Gokalp, and Akcura both believed in the need for close cooperation between the government and historical societies. For an insight into the activities of Akcura in this regard see F. Georgeon, Aux Origines du Nationalisme Turc: Yusuf Akcura (1876-1935) (Paris: Institut d’Etudes Anatoliennes, 1980), p.234-236. Agaoglu’s activities can be examined in Frank Tachau, “The Search for National Identity Among the Turks’, Die Welt Des Islams, vol.8, no.3, 1963, p.174.

[1] Taner Timur, “The Ottoman heritage” in Irvin C. Schick and Ertugrul Ahmet Tonak (eds.), Turkey in Transition (Oxford University Press, 1987), p.6.

[1] Elements of this “Thesis” had already been incorporated into various school textbooks since 1929. See also Poulton, H. Top Hat, Grey Wolf and Crescent, 1997, P.101.

[1] Robins, Philip, 2003, Suits and Uniforms, p.93.

[1] Afghanistan was not recognized as such according to historical archives until the year 1747 at the earliest.

[1] This was held in the Washington Convention Centre. The display was entitled “Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Yesterday and Today: A Cultural experience”.  See Jalal Matini, “Persian artistic and literary pieces in the Saudi Arabian exhibition”, Iranshenasi: A Journal of Iranian Studies, 1989b, p.390-404.

[1] Philip Robins, Suits and Uniforms: Turkish Foreign Policy Since the Cold War, Hurst & Company, London, p.96.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Atabaki, T., Azarbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran, p.7.

[1] Kasravi, A. Azeri ya Zaban-e Bastan-e Azarbaijan, 2nd print, Tehran, Taban, 1938, p.8.

[1] It is notable that this region was identified as the land in which Zoroastrian “fire-temples were very common”, as cited in Yaqut al-Hamavi, Kitab Mujam Al Buldan, Wustenfled F. (ed.) vol.1, Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1866, p.17.

[1] Atabaki, T., Azarbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran, p.7.

[1] Strabo Geographica, see p. 17-18 regarding Azarbaijan and Arran.

[1] Matini, Jalal, “Azarbaijan Koja Ast?”, 1989, Iranshenasi, I(3), p.452.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Matini, Jalal, “Azarbaijan Koja Ast?”, 1989, Iranshenasi, I(3), p.452.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Ibid. Matini also notes that Greater Azarbaijan nationalists such as Abbas-Ali Javadi have inaccurately cited the new republic as having been the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan. This may perhaps be an attempt to provide a historical (albeit fictional) background for the rise of the Soviet-supported Pishevari movement in Iranian Azarbaijan in the mid-1940s.

[1] Chaqueri, Cosroe, Origins of Social Democracy in Iran, 2001, p.209.

[1] Matini, Jalal, “Azarbaijan Koja Ast?”, 1989, Iranshenasi, I(3), p.445.

[1] The Ottoman Turks had successfully defeated and expelled the Russians from Kars on April 26, 1918, a full month before the declaration of the “Republic of Azerbaijan”. For the little studied area of Ottoman operations and personnel in the Caucasus and Iran during World War One, consult Nicolle, David, The Ottoman Army: 1914-1918, 1994, p.37, 39-40. 

[1] Matini, Jalal, “Azarbaijan Koja Ast?”, 1989, Iranshenasi, I(3), p.452.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Chaqueri, Cosroe, Origins of Social Democracy in Iran, 2001, p.118, 174-181, 209-210.

[1] Rasulzadeh, Mohammad Amin, 1910, Tanqid-e Ferqeh-e E’tedaliyun ya Ejtema’iyun E’tedaliyun, Tehran, Farus. See also citation by Atabaki, Touraj, Azarbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran, 2000, p.38.

[1] Pan-Turanian activists also portray Khiyabani as a sort of “closet separatist”. Refer to Atabaki’s 2000 text for further discussion.

[1] Kasravi, A. Tarijh-e-Hejdah Saleh-e Azarbaijan, op. cit., p.872.

[1] Blucher, W.V., Zeitenwende, Persian Translation: Safar-nameh-e-Blucher, Tehran, Khwarami, 1984, p.37. Tancoigne, A Narrative, p.177. See Ayandeh (1988), vol 4, no.s 1-2, p. 57-59).

[1] Ramazani, R., op. cit. p.115. See also citation by Atabaki, Touraj, Azarbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran, 2000, p.25.

[1] Chaqeri, Origins of Social Democracy in Iran, p.209; Watson, A History, p.26; Bassett, The Land of Imams, p.266; US Consular Report, p.294.

[1] Matini, Jalal, “Azarbaijan Koja Ast?”, 1989, Iranshenasi, I(3), p.449.

[1] The author, who is born in Greece, met a number of ex-Greek communists who had fought against Athens on Russia’s behalf after the Second World War. After their defeat, they retreated to Skopje in Yugoslavia, which was re-named by the Communists as “Macedonia”. Russia then bought a number of these to prop up Pishevari’s flagging movement.

[1] The Mazdak rebellion fought centuries earlier during the pre-Islamic Sassanian regin, are also reputed to have worn red garments.

[1] History has seen repeated instances of a minority group introducing its language upon a majority population. The Romance-speaking population of Pannonia adopted the Turkic language of the Hunnic invaders of Attila. Again, the actual genetic trace of the original Magyar Turkic invaders is negligible (see Cavalli-Sforza in references). As noted by Professor Colin Renfrew (see references) languages can be spread by conquest, agricultural and economic factors, occupation of uninhabited lands, and climate changes forcing population movements.  

[1] The pope officially forgave his would-be assassin in the December of 1983.

[1] Olson, Robert, 2004, p.108-109. Citation from Hurriyet, 6 February 2001.

[1] Olson, Robert, 2004, p.108-109.

[1] Robins, Philip, 2003, Suits and Uniforms, p.78-79.

[1] Engdahl, 2004, p.171.

[1] Robert Eringer has provided a rare and detailed report on the Bilderberg Group as well as the Trilateral Commission and other covert power groups in the western world. See references for details.

[1] Dreyfus and LeMarc, 1980, p.157.

[1] “Pakhtunistan” would assist in the process of the disintegration of Pakistan, Iran and possibly Afghanistan.

[1] As with the Al-Ahwaz and Arabian Gulf projects, the Azarbaijan project is being supported by lobbies harboring economic objectives. As noted by Olson, “…the growth of Azeri nationalism facilitated US and EU efforts to make the Caspian basin region a ‘second Persian Gulf’…” (Turkey-Iran Relations, 1979-2004, 2004, p.155-156).

[1] Olson, 2004, p.89.

[1] Dr. Shaffer asked the US Congress in 2002 to lift long-standing US sanctions on the Republic of Azerbaijan despite long-standing concerns with the Republic’s human rights records and anti-democratic procedures..

[1] Dr. Shaffer has given speeches to the nationalist, pan-Azeri Vatan Society in Britain in 2004.

[1] Afshin Molavi, a US-based Iranian analyst, has noted that Shaffer’s book has "captivated the attention of [Iranian] regime change advocates in Washington."

[1] Matini, Jalal, “Azarbaijan Koja Ast?”, 1989, Iranshenasi, I(3), p.447.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Ibid.

[1] The professor’s knowledge of all phonological and orthographic (Arabic-based) varieties of Persian are impressive. The Professor showed the author during his interview, a copy of old Tajiki hand-written manuscripts that he was researching. Maclean is also versed in the Dehlavi (Moghul Indian) style of Persian, the Masnavi of Jallale-Din Rumi, the Golestan Saadi and the Divan-e- Hafez. 

[1] By “nation building” I assume that the Professor meant Iranian nationalism attempts at nation-building. This means that Iranians have invented Azarbaijan’s history as a way of keeping that province in Iran.

[1] “Released Britons return to Iraq”, BBC TV News Broadcast June 25th, 2004, also available on the following website

[1] Iran's Arabic language Al-Alam television noted after the seizure of the British and their equipment that “…on board (the seized boats of the British) they (Iranian authorities) found weapons and spy cameras, plus detailed maps of areas within Iran and Iraq." The full text of this broadcast is provided in the on-line Payvand News network site of June 23, 2004 edition,

[1] Ibid.

[1] Gedye, Robin & Savill, RichardIran releases eight captured servicemen”, The Telegraph, June 25th, 2004, also available on the following website

[1] Ref

[1] Philip Robins, Suits and Uniforms: Turkish Foreign Policy Since the Cold War, Hurst & Company, London, p.172-173.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Philip Robins, Suits and Uniforms: Turkish Foreign Policy Since the Cold War, Hurst & Company, London, p.81.

[1] Philip Robins, Suits and Uniforms: Turkish Foreign Policy Since the Cold War, Hurst & Company, London, p.81. it is interesting to note that when British Foreign Secretary, Malcolm Rifkind visited Turkey in September 1995, the Turks made their dissatisfaction with British sponsorship of Med-TV very clear to the secretary.

[1] For further discussion of the nucluer issue, refer to Professor Kaveh Afrasiabi’s article US media and Iran's nuclear threat” (see Web References).


[1] One tiny piece of inconsistency is worthy of note: politically unstable Pakistan, with its vast arsenal of nucleur bombs, is not seen as a threat. This is very illogical, as much of the nation’s populace and upper leadership seethes with anti-US sentiment, and there is a genuine danger of a Taliban style takeover. The Taliban are highly irrational and bear a fanatic hatred of the west. Rather than finally confront reality, mainstream American analysts continue to parrot the fallacy that all Pakistanis and Saudis are friends of the United States.

























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