Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies
Treaty of Torkamanchai (also Turkmenchay) dated 1828, agreement signed by Russia and Persia
at the village of Turkmanchai (Torkaman), East Azarbaijan province., NW Iran.
It concluded the Russo-Persian war that had begun in 1825 and forced
Persia to cede part of Persian Armenia to Russia and to grant
lost as the result of the Treaty of Turkmenchay
The Torkamanchai treaty (also written Turkmanchai,
Turkemanchay, Turkamanchay, and Turkmanchay) is a treaty
by which Iran lost many of its northern territories to Russia after its
defeat in 1828, bringing an end to the second Russo-Persian wars
The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828, by Haj
Mirza Abol-hasan Khan and Asef ul-dowleh,
chancellor of Fath Ali Shah from Iran's side, and General Ivan Paskievich
As was the case for the Gulistan
Treaty, Iran was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no
other alternative after Abbas Mirza's defeat. The Russian general had
threatened Fath Ali Shah to conquer Tehran in five days unless the treaty
By this treaty:
By Article 4 of the treaty, Iran loses sovereignty
over Yerevan (current capital of Armenia), Nakhichevan, Talysh, Ordubad,
and Mughan regions of Arran Province (now part of modern
Azerbaijan Republic), in addition to all lands annexed by Russia in
the Gulistan Treaty.
The Aras river is assigned the new borderline between
Iran and Russia, from "from Arrarat ghal'eh to the outlet
of the river at Astara".
By Article 6 of the treaty, Iran promised to pay
Russia 10 Koroor in Gold (in 1828 currency).
By Article 8 of the treaty, Iranian ships lose full
rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and her coasts, henceforth
given to Russia.
Iran recognizes Capitulation rights for Russians in
By Article 10, Russia gains the right to send
consulate envoys to anywhere in Iran it wishes.
By Article 13, Exchange of POWs.
By Article 10, Iran is forced to sign economic
treaties with Russia as Russia specifies.
By Article 7 of the treaty, Russia promises to
support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia after Fath Ali
Iran officially apologizes for breaking its promises
made in the Gulistan Treaty.
By Article 15, Fath Ali Shah promises not to
prosecute any Khanate secessionist movements in the north-western region.
Iran officially sees this and the preceding Gulistan
Treaty as one of Iran's most humiliating treaties ever signed. The treaty
is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fath Ali Shah is seen
as one of Iran's most incompetent rulers in memory.
See also: Treaty
is the Light on the Path to Future"
British Institute of Persian Studies