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Iranian Languages & Literatures


 

Complied by: Shapour Suren-Pahlav

June 2000

(image updated 2010)

 

 

 

 

Iranian languages are spoken in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Arran (nowadays the Republic of Azerbaijan), Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, China, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Russia and other scattered areas of the Caucasus Mountains as well as the southern Persian Gulf.

 

 

Lingusit Map of Iran.gif (99999 bytes)

Iranian Speaking World

 

 

Iranian languages are divided into three stages: Old, Middle and New

 

OLD-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

WESTERN 

IRANIAN LANGUAGES

EASTERN 

IRANIAN LANGUAGES

Name of the Language

Today Spoken in Modern Country(ies) of:

Name of the Language

Today Spoken in Modern Country(ies) of:

Aryan (Old Persian)

Extinct

Avestan

Extinct

Median

Extinct

Scythian

Extinct

 

 

MIDDLE-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

WESTERN 

IRANIAN LANGUAGES

EASTERN 

IRANIAN LANGUAGES

Name of the Language

Today Spoken in Modern Country(ies) of:

Name of the Language

Today Spoken in Modern Country(ies) of:

 (Parthian-Pahlavi)

Extinct

Sacian

Extinct

Middle Persian (Sasanian-Pahlavi)

Extinct

Bactrian

Extinct

Sogdian

Extinct

Khwāresmian

Extinct

Khotanese

Extinct

Ossetic  

Georgia & Russia (Chechnya)

 

 

All Iranian languages currently spoken, show a simplification of the earlier sound systems and a preference for the use of auxiliary verbs in place of the complex verb conjugations of the ancient Iranian languages.

 

 

NEW-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

WESTERN 

IRANIAN LANGUAGES

EASTERN 

IRANIAN LANGUAGES

Name of the Language

Today Spoken in Modern Country(ies) of:

Name of the Language

Today Spoken in Modern Country(ies) of:

Alviri/Vidāri

Iran

Bartangi

Central Asia

Āshtiāni

Iran

Hindukush Group (Several)

please see the list

Balochi

Iran, Pakistan, UAE, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan & Afghanistan

Ishkashmi

Afghanistan

Bashkardi

Iran

Karakoram Group (Several)

Pakistan, Afghanistan, China

Dari

(Persian Dari)

Afghanistan

Khufi

Tajikistan & Afghanistan

Gillani

Afghanistan

Munji

Afghanistan

Gurani

Iran & Iraq

Oroshori

Central Asia

Kermanji

Iran & Iraq

Ossetic

Georgia & Russia (Chechnya)

Kordi 

(Kurdish)

Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Arran (Azerbaijan)

Parāchi

Afghanistan

Lori & Backhtiari

Iran

Pashto

Afghanistan & Pakistan

Kumzāri

UAE & Lower Persian-Gulf

 Pamir languages (Several)

Tajikistan

Māzandarāni

Iran

Roshni/Roshani

Tajikistan & Afghanistan

Ormuri

Afghanistan

Sarikoli

China

Sangsar

Iran

Shughni

Tajikistan & Afghanistan

Persian

(New Persian)

Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan

Wakhi

China, Tajikistan, Afghanistan & Pakistan

Tāleshi

Iran & Arran (Republic of Azerbaijan)

Yaghnobi

Tajikistan

Tāti

Iran & Arran (R. Azerbaijan)

Yidghā

Pakistan

Vafsi

Iran

Yazgulami

Tajikistan

Zāzā / Zāzāki

Turkey

 

 


 

 

Table of Aramaic to Middle-Iranian Script

 

 

 

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