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.Iranian Religions: Zoroastrianism



By: Prof. Mary Boyce




Haoma yields the essential ingredient for the parahaoma, Pahl. parahôm, the consecrated liquid prepared during the main act of worship, the Yasna, and its extensions, the Visperad and Vendidad. Basic similarities between the Zoroastrian and Brahmanic haoma/soma rites (Haug, pp. 281-83; Henry; Thieme, pp. 71-77) establish their common origin, but marked differences developed between them. In Zoroastrian observance (except for the Vendidad service, probably not instituted until Sasanian times), the pressing may take place only between sunrise and noon, the "time of pressing" (Av. hâvani- ratu-, Pahl. hâwan gâh); and there are two preparations of parahôm, which are not identical. The second is repeatedly mentioned as a zaoθra "libation" in the Young Avesta, and some details of its preparation are given in the Vendidad and Nêrangestân, as well as in certain Pahlavi books and Persian Rivayats (see Darmesteter, 1892-93, I, pp. xcii-xciii); and some Avestan manuscripts (Geldner, I, p. xxiv) have ritual instructions. Abraham Anquetil-DuPerron (I/2, pp. 81-260) gave some ritual indications with his French translation of the Yasna and Martin Haug (pp. 394-407) drew on unnamed Parsi priestly informants for a fairly full account of the rituals. In 1888 Tahmuras Dinshaji Anklesaria (q.v.) published the Yasna text with ritual notes in Gujarati. These were used by James Darmesteter (1892-93, I, pp. iii-iv, vi-vii) for ritual notes to his French translation of the Yasna, for which he also consulted Anklesaria personally and other Parsi priests, and also drew on manuscript authorities. Uncharacteristically, however, this great scholar failed to mark the difference between the two parahôms, and Jivanji Jamshedji Modi in his account of the service (pp. 251-309) is not consistently clear on this (see p. 303). The rituals were again recorded with the text by the Kutar brothers and by Maneck Kanga and N. S. Sontakke, and subsequently Firoze Kotwal published a detailed account of the rituals as performed by the Bhagarias (q.v.; see Kotwal and Boyd, 1991). It is this account which is summarized here. Like Darmesteter, Kotwal noted small differences from the known Irani practice, and that of other Parsi priesthoods. The existence of minor variations in priestly usage is acknowledged already in the Nêrangestân (see Tahmuras Anklesaria apud Darmesteter, 1892-93, I, p. xciv). Details of the Irani performance of the preliminary rites are given in the manuscript F23 (Dhabhar, pp. 15-17), published (as no. 36) by Kaikhosroo Jamaspsa and Mâhyâr Nawwâbi.

These preliminary rites, Pahl. nêrangîhâ î arwêsgâh "rituals of the place of worship," are performed now by one serving priest, the râspî. The Parsis call them the "preceding ritual," paragna, a corruption of paragra (< Skt. prakryâ-; see Darmesteter, 1892-93, I, p. lxx, n. 1). For those of its rites which concern the preparation of the first parahôm three twigs of hôm are required (usually used dried), a twig of pomegranate, and pure water, drawn in Persia from a stream, in India from a well. The twigs are made "clean" by ritual laving, and "pure" by the utterance over them of the xšnûman of Hôm (see below), and they and the water are then consecrated by recital of more Avestan. The pomegranate twig is cut into pieces, which are put with the hôm twigs into a metal mortar (in the ancient rite, as the text shows, one of stone). The priest recites over it (as in Y. 25) the xšnûman of Zoroaster and of his fravaši (q.v.), which, according to the prophet's hagiography, was brought to earth within a miraculous hôm stalk. He strikes the mortar and its pestle on the stone table before which he sits, and then the pestle against the inner rim of the mortar, to east, south, west and north, while reciting Yasna 27, which declares the forthcoming rite to be for smiting evil. He then pounds the twigs, pours over them some of the consecrated water, and empties the mortar, in three pourings, into one of two metal bowls. On this is set a metal strainer with nine holes. Between pourings he pounds the twigs again, then rubs the residue caught in the strainer against its holes, squeezes it dry, and drops it on the floor of the pâvi (ritual precinct). He rinses the strainer, puts it on the mortar, and places in it the varas, three hairs (Av. varəsa-) from a bull's tail wound three times round a metal ring and tied three times with the sacred (reef) knot. This represents the hair sieve used originally. There follows a ritual straining of the already strained liquid over the varas in triple pourings between the mortar and two bowls, in a sequence repeated three times, so that finally the liquid is contained in the bowls. The priest then rearranges the ritual table, setting out three more hôm twigs and another pomegranate twig, and leaves the pâvi to procure milk, in Persia from a cow, in India from a goat (see Modi, pp. 278-79; Kotwal and Boyd, 1991, p. 71, n. 39). Draxt î âsûrîg (q.v., vv. 47-52) suggests that this may be an old difference between Parthian and Persian practice. The milk is drawn into a vessel already half-filled with consecrated water. After returning with it to the pâvi, the râspî picks up the residue of twigs, which he puts on a log by the fire to dry.

A second priest joins the râspî as the celebrant, zôt, of the Yasna. This service has its own internal preliminaries, followed by the Srôš drôn (Y. 3-8). Then comes recitation of the Hôm yašt (Y. 9-11), which contains what appear to be very ancient elements. It lacks the formal features common to other yašts, but has the same intention, namely to honor an individual yazata (divinity). With Haoma is revered the plant haoma. The Avestan is recited without special ritual down to Yasna 11.8, when the râspî takes one of the bowls containing parahôm, pours a few drops from it onto the barsom-tie, and hands it to the zôt. With Yasna 11.10 the zôt praises and prays to Haoma, then drinks the parahôm in three sips.

The liturgy for the second parahôm preparation begins with Yasna 22, called the "beginning of the hômast section," hômast being probably the corruption of a Pahlavi phrase, written ideogramatically, meaning "hôm-pounding" (Kotwal and Boyd, 1991, p. 104, n. 112). During recitation of Yasna 25 the zôt puts the hôm twigs into the mortar. He pours on them a little of the milk mixed with consecrated water, adds the bits of pomegranate twig, and finally more consecrated water, saying in Avestan "these zaoθras are for the Good Ones," that is, the Waters. The rituals that follow are essentially those of the paragna, but with even more thorough pounding and straining, the residue of crushed twigs being twice returned to the mortar for another triple pounding. The varas is not used in this second rite, but lies on the table in its metal dish. The ritual lasts into the beginning (Y. 28) of the Ahunavaitî Gâθâ. Yasnas 29 and 30 are recited without special ritual, but during Yasnas 31 and 32 the zôt again pounds the twigs three times, straining some of the liquid into one of the bowls after each pounding, and each time returning any crushed residue to the mortar. Finally, during Yasna 33, he empties the mortar through the strainer and squeezes out the last residue, dropping it on the pâvi floor. The râspî picks it up and puts it beside that from the first parahôm preparation. During recital of Yasna 34, the bowl now containing all the parahôm is set on the base of the empty, inverted, mortar and covered with the metal milk-dish, a three-tiered arrangement which remains untouched during the ritual of the âtaš zôhr "offering to Fire" (q.v.), made formerly during the recital of Yasna Haptaºhâiti (Y. 35-41; see Boyce, 1970, pp. 68-69). There is little ritual during the recital of the remaining four θâs, the two Srôš yašts (Y. 56, 57), or the linking texts. At Yasna 62, the  "prayer for Fire," the râspî puts on the fire the now-dried residue of twigs from the two parahôm preparations. Although this is done at an appropriate point in the liturgy, it is not a zaoθra of the pressed hôm twigs to fire, but a ritually proper way to dispose of combustible consecrated materials (after the service the barsom-tie etc are similarly burnt, see Kotwal and Boyd, 1991, p. 129, n. 156). In a Pahlavi codex (ed. JamaspAsa and Nawwâbi, no. 32, p. 120) the instruction is: "(at) urwara . . . m vâ the pounded hôm and urwaram (are) to be given to the fire (âtaxš dâdan)."

The liturgy for the âb zôhr, "offering to the Water(s)" (q.v.), begins with Yasna 62.11. During the recital of Yasna 62, 64, 65 and 68, the zôt repeatedly pours the parahôm between the two bowls and the now reverted mortar, so that all three vessels hold exactly the same mixture of parahôm, which itself contains every drop of the consecrated extract and the milk (except that used in barsom-lavings). The service having ended with Yasna 72, the zôt, attended by the râspî, carries the mortar to the stream or well from which pure water had been obtained, and makes libation from it, in three pourings, invoking Arədvî Sûrâ Anâhitâ (see ANÂHÈD). The parahôm remaining in the mortar and bowls is usually given to the person(s) who engaged the priests to perform the ceremony (Kotwal and Boyd, 1991, p. 129, n. 154). Drinking it in a state of ritual purity is believed to be highly beneficial for body and soul. A little is therefore sometimes reserved to be given to the new-born or dying (Modi, pp. 306-7; Boyce, 1966, p. 115, n. 5; idem, 1970, p. 64; Kotwal and Boyd, 1991, p. 18). If not needed, this may be poured away over the roots of fruit trees (Tahmuras Anklesaria, apud Darmesteter, 1892-93, I, p. 441, n. 8).

This second preparation of parahôm appears to be connected with the Old Avestan part of the liturgy. It has been suggested that Yasna Haptaηhâiti, as well as the θâs, was composed, in whole or in part, by Zoroaster (K. Hoffman apud Barr, p. 285, n. 7; Gershevitch, 1968, p. 18; Narten, pp. 35-37), and that in it ancient elements were modified by him in accordance with his new teachings (Boyce, 1992, pp. 87-94; idem, 1995, pp. 25-26). If this is so, it may reasonably be supposed that he made modifications also in the rituals, one being very possibly the addition of milk to the parahaoma. This would explain why this ingredient is always mentioned in Young Avestan references to this zaoθra. The doctrinal significance of the milk is plainly that the animal creation is thus represented. The intention of the zaoθras to fire and water appears to be to purify and strengthen the inner forces (mainyu-) of these two creations and through them the inner forces of the earth, plants, and animals, so that they may better withstand the polluting attacks of evil. It seems very possible that Zoroaster replaced with this rite an old one, like that maintained by the Brahmans, in which priests imbibed the parahaoma, sharing it with the gods; and that he did this because he regarded haoma as potentially dangerous in its potency to people (cf. his probable denunciation of it, as mada-, in Y. 48.10). An extract from it was drunk by warriors to stimulate their battle lust, and (on Vedic evidence) it was prominent in the cult of warlike Indra, to Zoroaster a daêva (see DAIVA, DEÚW). If then he restricted its use in his own act of worship to yielding a libation to the Waters, it must be supposed that, as his religion spread, priestly converts in ever increasing numbers were reluctant to abandon the old rite, believed to give the celebrant an increase in awareness and power, and so this came to be reinstated as a preliminary to the one he had established (see Boyce, Zoroastrianism I, pp. 159-60. Cf. the observations by Schlerath, p. 139). The use of the varas in it only suggests the profound conservatism of those who, on this hypothesis, gained its reacceptance. In living observance the ingredients in both preparations of parahôm are present in very small quantities, while the Parsis keep hôm twigs for at least thirteen months before use to shed any impurity incurred on the journey from Persia (Kotwal and Boyd, 1991, p. 72, n. 43, cf. Anquetil-DuPerron, II, p. 533; Haug, p. 399).

Pahl. Drôn î hôm, Pahl/Pers. Hôm Drôn, Pers. also Drôn-e Zabân (of the tongue)

This short service (see DROÚN) was still solemnized in Persia during the 1960s. A few details of its rituals are given in a service book published in Bombay without date by Kaykhosrow son of Hêrbad K¨odâbakhš, son of Jamšid of Mobâraka near Yazd. For a full description, based on observation and on oral instruction by Dastur K¨odâdâd Nêryôsangi of Yazd, see Mary Boyce (1970, pp. 72-77). No reference to this service is recorded among the Parsis. Its purpose is to consecrate for Hôm the portion assigned to him from each animal sacrifice, namely "the two jaw bones with tongue and left eye" (Y. 11.4; on the symbolism of this see Duchesne-Guillemin, 1966, pp. 25-26). The yazad is represented (Y. 11.3, 6) as cursing him who withholds this portion, for it was believed that unless domestic animals were killed with full rites, their spirits would not be properly released, and either they, or Hôm himself, would be there to accuse their killers of this sin when their souls were judged (Boyce, Zoroastrianism I, pp. 149-50; idem, 1966, p. 109, n. 4 for Pahl. and Pers. references). Until recently, at festivals and funerary occasions there would regularly be such sacrifices, with the Hôm drôn performed for lay people by the priest of their hûšt (the area assigned to a priest); and the Nêrangestân (Kotwal and Kreyenbroek, II, chap. 47) gives some instructions about its solemnization during the Yasna, but away from the ritual precinct. For it three hôm twigs are used instead of the three chips of wood of other drôn services, and the tongue of the sacrificed animal is put on the drôn with the other offerings. While reciting the Pâzand prologue to the service, the priest takes the tongue in his right hand (his left is holding the barsom) and circles his closed hand round his right eye, passes it along his right jaw, and up round the eye again, preferably three times. He then replaces it, and solemnizes the service in the usual way, using, while reciting Yasna 3-8, the xšnûman of Haoma, which in its "greater" form occurs in Yasna 10.21: "We worship tall, golden-green Haoma! We worship radiant Haoma, furtherer of the world! We worship Haoma dûraoša- (haoməm zairim bərəzantəm yazamaide haoməm frasmim fradat.gaêθəm yazamaide. haoməm dûraošəm yazamaide). After Yasna 7.15 he repeats the Pâzand prologue and ritual with the tongue; and during the recital of the Ahunwar (q.v.) after Yasna 7.25, and at the words aêsma baoi’i "fuel, incense" in Yasna 8.1, he places the three hôm twigs, one after the other, with incense, on the fire. The tongue is then roasted on the flat ritual ladle and returned to the drôn. The service completed, the priest puts the tongue with a piece of the drôn in a metal bowl, to be given with recital of one əm vohû (q.v.) to a dog (see DOGII, p. 468). In some Pahlavi lists of obligatory observances (Boyce, 1970, pp. 76-77), Hôm drôn is used as a term for blood sacrifice with full rites.



Until the 1960s at Nowruz in the strongly conservative village of Šarifâbâd near Yazd, and presumably once throughout the Iranian community, all who could, laity and priests, partook of the second parahôm consecrated that day during a Visperad service (Boyce, 1977, pp. 233, 235). This was to gain strength and vigor for the coming year, and prefigures a rite foretold for Frašô.kərəti (q.v.), when the blessed will partake of a parahôm prepared from the mythical "White Hôm," which, with the fat of the sacrificed mythical bull, Ha’ayans (q.v.), will confer immortality on their resurrected bodies (Dâdestân î dênîg, Purs. 36.100, 47.16; Zâdspram 35.15). The White Hôm, also called Gôkarn (Av. Gaokərəna-) grows at the source of the world river, Arədvî Sûrâ Anâhitâ, and "derives its contentment from the âb zôhr" (Williams, ed., Pahl. Rivâyat 46.14), that is, from all parahôm libations made with the natural hôm.



The Yazata Haoma, known in Persia as Hôm Izad, in India as Hôm Yazad, is the divinization of the force or spirit (Av. mainyu-) within the haoma plant (cf. Boyce, 1992, pp. 52-53; Lommel, p. 187). In the Hôm yašt Haoma manifests himself to Zoroaster "at the time of pressing" in the form of a most beautiful man and exhorts him to gather and press haoma (Y. 9.1-2). He is frequently hailed as "the Golden-Green One" (zairi-), also as "golden-green-eyed" (zairi.dôiθra-). He is "righteous" (ašavan-, q.v.), "furthering righteousness" (aša-vazah-), and "of good wisdom" (hu.xratu-, cf. Skt. sukratu- "wise" of Soma; see AirWb., cols. 246, 254-55, 1681, 1772-74, 1819). Through the potency in his plants he grants "speed and strength to warriors, excellent and righteous sons to those giving birth, spiritual power and knowledge to those who apply themselves to the study of the nasks" (Y. 9-22). As the religion's chief cult divinity he came to be perceived as its divine priest. Ahura Mazdâ is said (Y. 9.26) to have invested him with the sacred girdle, the aiwiyåηhana-, "star-adorned, spirit-fashioned—the good Mazdâ-worshipping religion," and it is declared (Yt. 10.90) that he "was the first to offer up haomas with a star-adorned, spirit-fashioned mortar upon high Harâiti," the yazata of mountain plants upon the highest mountain peak. Ahura Mazdâ is also said (Yt. 10.89) to have installed Haoma as the "swiftly sacrificing zaotar" for himself and the Aməša Spəntas (q.v.), that is, for all other beneficent divinities. His sacrificing to Mithra, Sraoša, and Drvâspâ (q.v.) is specifically mentioned (Yt. 10.88; Y. 57.19; Yt. 9.17). To sacrifice swiftly was required out of compassion for the animal, and as compassionate sacrificer and yazata of plants on which animals browse (cf. Boyce, 1977, p. 260), Haoma is worshipped as protector of all beneficent animals, and is associated with Vohu Manah (see BAHMAN) and his divine fellow-workers, Mâh, Gə@uš Urvan (see G‰ÚUŠ URUUAN), and Râman (Persian Rivayats, ed. Unvala, I, pp. 263, l.17-264, l.4, tr. Dhabhar, p. 264). He also aids Tištrya (Tištar), Wâta (Wâd) and Apa . . . m Napât (q.v.) in bringing rain (Greater Bundahišn 6(B).3; Zâdspram 3.8; Dênkard, bk. 3, chap. 1.12.5), so that plants and animals may thrive.

In Yasna 9.3-11 Zoroaster is represented as asking the yazata: Who first pressed haoma, and for what reward? He is told Vîvahvant, whose reward was to have Yima Xšaêta (Jamšêd) as son; Âθwya (see ÂBTÈN), to whom θraêtaona (Ferêdôn) was born; and θrita, whose sons were Urvâxšaya and Kərəsâspa (Karšâsp/Garšâsp, q.v.). These sons figure in both priestly and heroic traditions, as does Fraηrasyan (Afrâsiâb, q.v.), in whose story, too, Haoma is assigned a part. In identical verses in Yašt 9 (v. 17) and Yašt 17 (v. 37), Haoma, named between the Pêšdâdiân θraêtaona and Kavi Haosravah (Kay K¨osrow), like them entreats Druvâspa and Aši (q.v.) for a boon, that he may bind Fraηrasyan and lead him to Haosravah, so that the latter may kill him to avenge Syâvaršan (Siâvakhš/Siâvaš). This feat is alluded to in Yasna 11.7, where the sacrificer is exhorted to cut Haoma's share swiftly, lest the yazata bind him as he bound Fraηrasyan, deep in the earth, "metal-encircled." The last words refer to Fraηrasyan's famed han-kana (Yt. 5.41; see Darmesteter, 1883), a miraculous underground kingdom ringed by metal and secure from all mortal attack. In Yašt 19:17 it is Haosravah who is said to have bound Fraηrasyan, but probably once Fraηrasyan's story became contaminated by the legend of the hankana, which gave him an impregnable refuge, it had to be a divinity who would drag him out to his death, a task then assigned to mighty Haoma. The story, fully euhemerized, is preserved in Ferdowsi's Š (ed. Khaleghi, IV, p. 313 ff., tr. Warner, IV, p. 260 ff.), where Hôm appears as a holy mountain-dwelling solitary, immensely strong, who binds Afrâsiâb with his sacred girdle and drags him from his hang, which is described here as a deep cavern (see HANG-E-AFRÂSIÂB). In a Persian rivâyat (Persian Rivayats, ed. Unvala, I, p. 263, 12-13, tr. Dhabhar, p. 263) it is Haoma's fellow cult-divinity Gôšurun (Av. Gəuš Urvan) who binds Afrâsiâb, which suggests a basic priestly concept of the power inherent in the ritual offerings to overcome evil.

This development in this one legend did not affect Haoma's veneration as yazata. Proper names were given in his honor. There is Av. Haomô.xúarənah "Having fortune through Haoma" (Yt. 13.116). Elamite tablets yield u-ma-ka and umakka for OPers. *Haumaka, *Haumâka (Mayrhofer, nos. 8.1715, 1716), and in Middle Persian a hwmk for Hômag is attested (Justi, Namenbuch, p. 130), while Sogdian has γwm (Ancient Letters, q.v.) and γwmd`t "Given by Haoma" (Mugh documents; see Henning, 1965b, p. 252; idem, 1977, p. 627). A yasna may be devoted to him, and it is suggested that it should be done in times of famine, or before battles, or for help in sickness (Persian Rivayats, ed. Unvala, I, p. 284.14-16, tr. Dhabhar, p. 278). Probably because a yašt to him exists, he alone of the "non-calendar" divinities may be taken as patron yazata by an individual at initiation, and he may be venerated on any day with the recital of Yasna 9 and 10. Among traditionalists he is still especially prayed to by women wanting children and those desiring illustrious sons. Modern reformists have abandoned his observances.



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David Stophlet Flattery and Martin Schwartz, Haoma and Harmaline: The Botanical Identity of the Indo-Iranian Sacred Hallucinogen "Soma" and Its Legacy in Religion, Language, and Middle Eastern Folklore, Near Eastern Studies 21, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1989; reviewed by Gherardo Gnoli in East and West 39, 1989, pp. 320-24, by Philippe Gignoux in Absracta Iranica 14, 1991, p. 186, and by K. Mylius, in IIJ 35, 1992, pp. 45-48. 

Karl Geldner, ed., Avesta: The Sacred Book of Parsis, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1896. Ilya Gershevitch, "Old Iranian Literature," in HO IV, 2.1, Leiden, 1968, pp. 1-30. 

Idem, "An Iranist's View of the Soma Controversy," in Philippe Gignoux and Ahmad Tafazzoli, eds., Me‚morial Jean de Menasce, Louvain, 1974, pp. 45-75. 

Gherardo Gnoli, "Lichtsymbolik in Alt-Iran: Haoma-Ritus und Erlöser-Mythos," Antaios 8, 1967, pp. 528-49. 

Idem, "On the Iranian Soma and Pers. sepand 'Wild Rue'," East and West 43, 1993, pp. 235-36. 

Louis H. Gray, The Foundations of the Iranian Religions, Bombay, 1930, pp. 83-84. 

Martin Haug, Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, Bombay, 1862, 3rd ed., enlarged and ed. by Edward William West, London,, 1884; repr. London, 1907, Amsterdam, 1971. 

Walter Bruno Henning, Zoroaster: Politician or Witch-Doctor?, Ratanbai Katrak Lectures 3, (1949), Oxford, 1951. Idem, "A Grain of Mustard," AIOUN, Sizione linguistica 6, 1965a, pp. 29-47; repr. in idem, Selected Papers II, Acta Iranica 15, 1977, pp. 597-615. 

Idem, "A Sogdian God," BSO(A)S 28, 1965b, pp. 242-54; repr. in idem, Selected Papers II, Acta Iranica 15, 1977, pp. 617-29. 

Victor Henry, "Esquise d'une liturgie indo-iranienne," in Willem Caland and Victor Henry, eds., L'Agnistoma: description complete de la forme normale du sacrifice de soma dans le culte ve‚dique II, Paris, 1906. 

Almut Hinze, ed. and tr. with commentaries, Zâmyâd Yašt/Der Zamyad-Yašt, Wiesbaden, 1994. 

M. Hutter, "Weltliche und geistliche Berauschung: die Bedeutung von Haoma im Zoroastrismus," Mitteilungen für Anthropologie und Religionsgeschichte 11, 1996 (pub. 1997), pp. 187-208. 

Daniel Henry H. Ingalls, "Remarks on Mr. Wasson's Soma," JAOS 91, 1971, pp. 188-91. G. Ito, "An Interpretation of Yasna 32:14," Orient 25, 1989, pp. 43-50. 

Idem, "Nâsatya-: As‚vin- and the Yaθâ ahû vairyô prayer," Orient 30-31, 1995, pp. 98-107.

Kaikhosroo M. JamaspAsa and Mâhyar Nawwâbi (Nawabi), eds., Ganjina-ye dastnevishâ-ye Pahlavi wa pa‘uhešhâ-ye irâni/The Pahlavi Codices and Iranian Researches, Mo`assasa-ye Âsiâ`i-e Dânešgâh-e Pahlavi/Asia Institute of Pahlavi University, Shiraz, 1976. 

Judith Josephson, The Pahlavi Translation Technique as Illustrated by Hôm Yašt, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis Studia Iranica 2, Uppsala, 1997. 

Maneck Furdunji Kanga and N. S. Sontakke, Avesta, the Sacred Scripture of the Parsees I, Poona, 1962. 

C. G. Kashikar, "Soma vis-a-vis the Ruling Class," Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 67, 1986, pp. 247-50. 

Igore Nikolaevich Khlopin, "Mandragora turcomanica in der Geschichte der Orientalvölker," Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 11, 1980, pp. 223-31. 

Firoze M. Kotwal and James W. Boyd, "The Zoroastrian paragna Ritual," Journal of Mithraic Studies 2, 1977, pp. 18-52. 

Idem, A Persian Offering: The Yasna, A Zoroastrian High Liturgy, Stud. Ir. Cahier 8, Paris, 1991. 

Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek (with contributions by James Russell), eds. and trs., The Hêrbedestân and Nêrangestân II, Stud. Ir., Cahier 16, Paris, 1995. 

Stella Kramrisch, "The Mahâvîra Vessel and the Plant Putîka," JAOS 95, 1975, pp. 222-35. 

Franciscus Bernardus Jacobus Kuiper, "Was the Putîka a Mushroom?" in Shivram Dattatray Joshi, ed., Amrta-dhârâ: Professor R. N. Dandekar Felicitation Volume, Delhi, 1984, pp. 219-27. 

M. N. and F. N. Kutar, Yazashne bâ Nîrang (in Gujarati), Bombay, 1917, repr. 1941. 

Hermann Lommel, tr., Die Yäšt's des Awesta, Göttingen and Leipzig, 1927.

I. Mahadevan, "The Cult Object on Cuneiform Seals: A Sacred Filtre?" in K. N. Dikshit, ed., Archaeological Perspectives of India since Independence, New Delhi, 1985, pp. 165-86. 

S. Mahadihasan, "Soma, in Light of Comparative Pharmacology, Etymology and Archaeology," Janus 60, 1973, pp. 91-102. 

Idem, "A Persian Painting Illustrating Ephedra, Leading to Its Identity as Soma," Journal of Central Asia 8, 1985, pp. 171-75. 

Idem, The History and Natural History of Ephedra as Soma, Islamabad, 1987. 

Idem, "Soma of the Aryans and Ash of the Romans," Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute 68, 1987, pp. 639-44. 

William W. Malandra, "Atharvaveda 2.27: Evidence for a Soma-Amulet," JAOS 99, 1979, pp. 220-24. 

Idem, ed. and tr., An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion: Readings from the Avesta and Achaemenid Inscriptions, Minneapolis, 1983, pp. 150-58. 

Manfred Mayrhofer, Onomastica Persepolitana: Das altiranische Namengut der Persepolis Täfelchen, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-Hist. Klasse, Vienna, 1973. 

Jivanji Jamshedji Modi, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, 2nd ed., Bombay, 1937, repr. 1986. 

Georg Morgenstierne, "A Vedic Word in Some Modern Hindu Kush Languages?" in idem, Irano-Dardica, Wiesbaden, 1973, pp. 273-76. 

B. Mukhopadhvav, "On the Significance of Soma," Vishveshvarananda Indological Journal 16, 1978, p. 7. 

Johanna Narten, ed. and tr., Der Yasna Haptaηhâiti, Wiesbaden, 1986. 

Henrik Samuel Nyberg, Irans forntida religioner, tr. Hans Heinrich Schaeder as Die Religionen des Alten Iran, Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatisch-aegyptischen Gesellschaft 43, Leipzig, 1938, repr. Osnabrük, 1966; tr. Sayf-al-Din Najmâbâdi as Dinhâ-ye Irân-e bâstân, Tehran, 1360 Š./1981. 

Wendy Donovan O'Flaherty, "The Post-Vedic History of the Soma Plant," in Robert Gordon Wasson, ed., Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality, part 2, New York, 1968, pp. 95-147. 

Kursetji Erachji Parvi, "Ancient Ceremonies: Additions and Improvements Made in Them," in Dastur Hoshang Memorial Volume, Bombay, 1918, pp. 165-92.

G. Rausing, "Soma," Orientalia Suecana 36-37, 1987-88, pp. 125-26. 

Bernfried Schlerath, "Zarathustra in Awesta," in Festgabe Deutscher Iranisten zur 2500 Jahrfeier Irans, ed. Wilhelm Eilers, Stuttgart, 1971, pp. 133-40. 

I. M. Steblin-Kamenski¥, "Flora iransko prarodini (etimologiceskie zametki)," Etimologiya, Moscow, 1972, pp. 138-39. 

R. Stuhrmann, "Worum handelt es sich beim Soma?" IIJ 28, 1985, pp. 85-93. 

Idem, "Rgveda X.119: Der Rausch des Kiebitz," Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 11/12, 1986, pp. 299-309. 

Dieter Taillieu, "Old Iranian haoma-: A Note on Its Pharmacology," Acta Orientalia Belgica 9, 1994 (pub. 1995), pp. 187-91. 

Paul Thieme, "Vorzarathustrisches bei den Zarathustriern und bei Zarathustra," ZDMG 107, 1957, pp. 66-104. 

Jamshedji Maneckji Unvala, Neryosangh's Sanskrit Version of the Hôm Yašt (Yasn IX-XI) with the Original Avestan and Its Pahlavi Version, Vienna, 1924. 

Robert Gordon Wasson, ed., Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality, Ethno-Mycological Studies 1, New York, 1968; reviewed by Franciscus B. J. Kuiper, in IIJ 12, 1970, pp. 279-85. 

Idem, "Soma of the Aryans: An Ancient Hallucinogen?" Bulletin on Narcotics 22, 1970, pp. 25-30. 

Idem, "Soma: Comments Inspired by Professor Kuiper's Review," IIJ 12, 1970, pp. 286-98. Idem, "The Soma of the Rig Veda: What Was It?" JAOS 91, 1971, pp. 169-86. 

Idem, Soma and the Fly-Agaric. Mr. Wasson's Rejoinder to Professor Brough, Botanical Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., November, 1972. 

Idem, "Soma Brought Up-to-Date," JAOS 99, 1979, pp. 100-105. 

Idem,"The Last Meal of the Buddha," JAOS 102, 1982, pp. 591-603. 

Alan V. Williams, ed. and tr., The Pahlavi Rivâyat Accompanying the Dâdestân î dênîg, 2 vols., Copenhagen, 1990. 

Gernot L. Windfuhr, "Haoma/Soma, the Plant," in A. D. H. Bivar and J. R. Hinnells, eds., Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce, 2 vols., Acta Iranica 24-25, Leiden, 1985, I, pp. 699-726. 

Zâdspram, Wizîdagîhâ, ed. and tr. Philippe Gignoux and Ahmad Tafazzoli as Anthologie de Zadspram, Paris,



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