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Iranian Religions: Zoroastrianism

ZOROASTRIAN CALENDAR


 

 

 

Initially the Mazad Colander, the earliest form of Iranian calendar divided the years into two parts, warm and cold months, each having thirty days. The warm or the summer part consisted seven months, and five months for the cold or the winter part. The Summer or warm months, was began from the first day of month Farvadin (20/21 March), and ended on the evening of the last day of month Aban.

 

The Zoroastrian calendar, which starts from 1738 BCE, the year of Divine revelation, consist of twelve months. It is distinctively simple, calculated through the pious dedication of each day and month to a divine Sprit or deity. The dedications are first through the innovation of the thirty calendar divinities in Y.16.3-6.  Four days were devoted to "Dadvah (Creator) Ahura Mazda, probably as an esoteric acknowledgment of Zurvan, who was worshipped as a quaternity. In later use the first of the four days is named for Ohrmazd, the other three for him as "Creator", Day (Pahlavi for Dadvah).

 

The three 'Dey' days are distinctive by adding to each the name of the following day, e.g. Dey-by-(the day) - Adar/Azar. The forms of the calendar names in current use are close the Pahlavi ones.

 

The Twelve months also received dedications, which coincide with those of twelve of the days.  The month names are first attested in Pahlavi.

 

Name of the Months (in New Persian):

 

Name of the Months

Start with (name of the day)

Farvardin

Ormazd va Farvardin

Ordibeshesht

Vahman

Khordad

Ordibehesht

Tir

Sahrivar

Amordad

Spendarmdh/Spandarmaz

Sahrivar

Khordad

Mehr

Amordad

Aban

Amordad

Azar

Amordad

Dey

Amordad

Bahman

Amordad

Esfand/Sfand

Amordad

 

 

Name of the Days (in New Persian):

 

Avestan

Pahlavi (Middle-Persian)

New-Persian

English

Dadvah Ahura Mazda

Ohrmazd

Urmazd

Creator Lord Mazda

Vohu Manah

Vahman

Bahman

Good Thought

Asha Vahista

Ardvahisht

Ordibehesht

Best Truth

Khshatra Vairya

Shahrevar

Sharivar

Desirable Dominion

Spenta Armaiti

Spendarmad

Spandarmaz

Holy Devotion

Haurvatat

Hordad

Khordad

Wholeness

Amertat

Amurdad

Amordad

Immortality

Dadvah Ahura Mazda

Dai-pad-Adar

Dey-be-Azar

Creator

Atar

Adar

Azar

Fire

Apo

Aban

Aban

Waters

Hvar Khshaeta

Khvarshed

Khur/Khir

Sun

Mah

Mah

Mah

Moon

Tishtrya

Tir

Tir

Rain Star

Gaush Urvan

Gosh

Gush?Gaush

Existance

Dadvah Ahra Mazda

Dai-Pad-Mihr

Dey-be-Mehr

Creator

Mithra

Mihr

Mehr

Contract, Love

Sraosha

Srosh

Sorush

Hearkening

Rashnu

Rashn

Rashn

Judustice

Fravashyo

Fravardin

Farvardin

Progress force

Verthraghna

Vrahram

Vrahram

Victory

Raman

Ram

Ram

Peace, Happiness

Vata

Vad

Bad

Wind

Davah Ahura Mazda

Dai-pad-Din

Dey-be-Din

Creator

Daena

Din

Din

Inside Vision

Ashi

Ard

Ard (Ashi)

Recompense

Arshtat

Ashtat

Eshtad

Justice, Truth

Asman

Asman

Asman

Sky

Zam

Zamyad

Zamyad

Earth

Mantra Spenda

Mahraspand

Mantraspand

Holy Word

Anagranam Raochangha

Angran

Anaram

Endless Light

 

 

 

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