The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies
(CAIS) -- Almost
2,000 years ago, 19 Roman soldiers rushed into a cramped underground tunnel,
sent to defend the Roman-occupied Syrian city of Dura-Europos from an army of
Persians digging to undermine the city's mudbrick walls. But instead of Persian
soldiers, the Romans met with a wall of noxious black smoke that turned to acid
in their lungs. Their crystal-pummelled swords were no match for this weapon;
the Romans choked and died in moments, many with their last pay of coins still
slung in purses on their belts.
a Persian soldier — perhaps the one who started the toxic underground fire —
suffered his own death throes, grasping desperately at his chain mail shirt as
he choked. [Image of skeleton of Persian soldier]
20 men, who died in 256 CE, may be the first victims of chemical warfare to
leave any archaeological evidence of their passing, according to a new
investigation. The case is a cold one, with little physical evidence left behind
beyond drawings and archaeological excavation notes from the 1930s. But a new
analysis of those materials published in January in the American Journal of
Archaeology finds that the soldiers likely did not die by the sword as the
original excavator believed. Instead, they were gassed.
the 250s, the Persian Sasanian Empire set its sights on re-taking the city
of Dura from Romans. The city, which backs up against the Euphrates River, was by
this time under Roman occupation used as a military base, well-fortified with meters-thick walls.
Persians set about tunnelling underneath those walls in an effort to bring them
down so troops could rush into the city. They likely started their excavations
130 feet (40 meters) away from the city, in a tomb in Dura's underground
necropolis. Meanwhile, the Roman defenders dug their own countermines in hopes
of intercepting the tunnelling Persians.
outlines of this underground cat-and-mouse game was first sketched out by French
archaeologist Robert du Mesnil du Buisson, who first excavated these siege
tunnels in the 1920s and 30s. Du Mesnil also found the piled bodies of at least
19 Roman soldiers and one lone Persian in the tunnels beneath the city walls. He
envisioned fierce hand-to-hand combat underground, during which the Persians
drove back the Romans and then set fire to the Roman tunnel. Crystals of sulphur
and bitumen, a naturally occurring, tar-like petrochemical, were found in the
tunnel, suggesting that the Persians made the fire fast and hot.
about that scenario didn't make sense to Simon James, an archaeologist and
historian from the University of Leicester in England. For one thing, it would
have been difficult to engage in hand-to-hand combat in the tunnels, which could
barely accommodate a man standing upright. For another, the position of the
bodies on du Mesnil's sketches didn't match a scenario in which the Romans were
run through or burned to death.
wasn't a pile of people who had been crowded into a small space and collapsed
where they stood," James told LiveScience. "This was a deliberate pile
old reports and sketches, James reconstructed the events in the tunnel on that
deadly day. At first, he said, he thought the Romans had trampled each other
while trying to escape the tunnel. But when he suggested that idea to his
colleagues, one suggested an alternative: What about smoke?
warfare was well established by the time the Persians besieged Dura, said
Adrienne Mayor, a historian at Stanford University.
was a lot of chemical warfare [in the ancient world]," Mayor, who was not
involved in the study, told LiveScience. "Few people are aware of how much
there is documented in the ancient historians about this."
of the earliest examples, Mayor said, was a battle in 189 B.C.E., when Greeks
burnt chicken feathers and used bellows to blow the smoke into Roman invaders'
siege tunnels. Petrochemical fires were a common tool in the Middle East, where
flammable naphtha and oily bitumen were easy to find. Ancient militaries were
endlessly creative: When the Macedonian warlord, Alexander II attacked the
Phoenician city of Tyre in the fourth century B.C.E., Phoenician defenders had a
surprise waiting for him.
heated fine grains of sand in shields, heated it until it was red-hot, and then
catapulted it down onto Alexander's army," Mayor said. "These tiny
pieces of red-hot sand went right under their armour and a couple inches into
their skin, burning them."
the idea that the Persians knew how to make toxic smoke is, "totally
plausible," Mayor said.
think [James] really figured out what happened," she said.
In the new interpretation of the clash in the tunnels of Dura, the Romans heard the Persians working beneath the ground and steered their tunnel to intercept their enemies. The Roman tunnel was shallower than the Persian one, so the Romans planned to break in on the Persians from above. But there was no element of surprise for either side: The Persians could also hear the Romans coming.
the Persians set a trap. Just as the Romans broke through, James said, they lit
a fire in their own tunnel. Perhaps they had a bellows to direct the smoke, or
perhaps they relied on the natural chimney effect of the shaft between the two
tunnels. Either way, they threw sulphur and bitumen on the flames. One of the
Persian soldiers was overcome and died, sacrificed himself to fir the weapon.
The Romans met with the choking gas, which turned to sulphuric acid in their
would have almost been literally the fumes of hell coming out of the Roman
tunnel," James said.
Any Roman soldiers waiting to enter the tunnels would have hesitated, seeing the smoke and hearing their fellow soldiers dying, James said. Meanwhile, the Persians waited for the tunnel to clear, and then hurried to collapse the Roman tunnel. They dragged the bodies into the stacked position in which du Mesnil would later find them. Since corpse particularly either hazardous, or of the aniranians (non-Aryans = uncivilised/savages) considered by Zoroastrian Persians as 'unclean', left the Roman corpses and their coins, armour and weapons untouched.
Professor Sam Lieu believes the operation for retaking Dura was conducted by Sasanian intelligence, the world's first intelligence organisation.
du Mesnil finished excavations, he had the tunnels filled in. Presumably, the
skeletons of the soldiers remain where he found them. That makes proving the
chemical warfare theory difficult, if not impossible, James said.
a circumstantial case," he said. "But what it does do is it doesn't
invent anything. We've got the actual stuff [the sulphur and bitumen] on the
ground. It's an established technique."
the Persians were using chemical warfare at this time, it shows that their
military operations were extremely sophisticated, James said.
story also brings home the reality of ancient warfare, James said.
easy to regard this very clinically and look at this as artefacts … Here at
Dura you really have got this incredibly vivid evidence of the horrors of
ancient warfare," he said. "It was horrendously dangerous, brutal, and
one hardly has words for it, really,”
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