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Articles on:

Ancient Iranian History and Histography 





Prehistory - Proto-Elamite (from 8000 BCE)

Elamite Period (3400-1100 BCE)

Neo-Elamite Period (1100-550 BCE)



Pre-Imperial Age - The Avestan Period (1767-728 BCE)

Median Dynasty (728-550 BCE)

Achaemenid Dynasty (550-330 BCE)

  - Cyrus the Great

Post Achaemenid/Proto-Parthian Period (330-248 BCE)

Arsacid/Parthian Dynasty (248 BCE - 224 CE)

Sasanian Dynasty (224-651 CE)



Two Centuries of Silence (651-861 CE)



General History

Chronological Ancient History of Iran, from 8000 BCE to 640 CE.


Prehistory - Proto-Elamite (from 8000BCE)

Ghâr-Neshini: Cave & Stone Age Cave Dwellers in Iran, by Prof. Ezzat O. Negahban

Ganj Par: The First Evidence for Lower Paleolithic Occupation in the Southern Caspian Basin, by F.Biglari, S. Heydari & S. Shidrang

Geoy Tepe, by Prof. Ezzat O. Negahban

Hasanlu Tepe, by Robert H. Dyson

Iranian Army in the First Half of the First Millennium BCE

Pre-History Iran, CAIS (Under Construction)

Pre-Median: history and method  of  Archaeological  research, by T. C. Young 


Elamite Civilisation (3400 - 550 BCE)

Choghâzanbil; A Large Temple for God, by M. R. Chitsâz

History of Elam (The), by: François Vallat

Proto-Elamite History, by R. K. Englund


Median Dynasty (728 -550 BCE)

Cyaxares: Media’s Great King in Egypt, Assyria, and Iran, by G. Heinsohn

Darius the Mede, by Richard N. Frye

Media and the Median Dynastic Empire, by: Profs. M. A. Dandamayev and I. Medevedskaya

Harpagos, by: Prof. M. A. Dandamayev

Kashtariti, by Prof. M. Dandamayev

King Fravartish (Phraortes), by I. Medevedskaya

Median Dynastic Empire; The Coming of the Aryans & Creation of the First Iranian Dynastic Empire, by Dr G. Savoia-Vizzini 

Medes, the First (Western) Iranian Kingdom, By Kh. Rezakhani

Urine and the Vine: Astyages' Dreams at Herodotus 1.107-8, by C. Pelling


Achaemenid Dynasty (550 - 330 BCE)

A Brief History of Persian Empire

Achaemenid Administrative System; Babylonian & Egyptian Documents, by M. A. Dandamayev

Achaemenid Army

Achaemenid Education System, by M. A. Dandamayev

Achaemenid Law, "Dâta", by R. Sshmitt

Achaemenid Military Equipments

Achaemenid Mints (Under Construction)

Achaemenians, Zoroastrians in Transition, by Dr. A. A. Jafari

Artaxerxes (Artakhshatra) Ardashir-e Derâz-Dast

Battle of Gaugamela (the), by: E. Badian

Battle of Granicus (The), by: E. Badian

Cyrus the Great (Collection of articles)

Dâtabara, by Prof. R. Schmitt

Egypt Under the Achaemenids, by E. Bresciani

Empire of the Achaemenid (Hakhâmaneshiyân) Dynasty

Ethiopia under the Achaemenid Dynasty, by Ph. Huyse

Hamârakara (Achaemenid Accountant/Bookkeeper), by M. A. Dandamayev

Human Rights and Rise of the Achaemenid Empire: Forgotten Lessons from a Forgotten Era, by B. Hassani

Inscription of Dariush the Great at Behestun

Inscription of Darius the Great at Naqsh-e- Rostam

Iranian Diaspora, Pre-Islamic Time, by Prof. M. Boyce

Median and Achaemenid Archaeology, by D. Stronach

New Trends in Achaemenid History, by P. Briant

On The Customs of the Persians, c. 430 BCE, Herodotus

Palestine Under the Persians (539-332 BCE), by D. F. Graf

Persian Invasion of Greece, by Thomas Setzer

Persian Invasion of Greece & the Battle of Marathon (The), by T. Setzer

Persians Reject Democracy; Darius the Grate' State Organisation, Herodotus

Persian Syria (538-331): Two Centuries of Persian Rule, by A. Bounni

Persian Wars, Heodotus

Persian Wars, by Prof. L. C. Stecchini

Splendor of Persia; The Great Kings, by: R.  Payne

Story of Uzahor-Resenet About Emperor Cambujia (Cambyses)

Where was Achaemenid India?, by D. Fleming

Xenophon Anabasis: The Defeat of Ten Thousand Greek Mercenaries in Iran

Zoroastrian Religion under the Achaemenids, by K. B. Shroff


Cyrus The Great (580-529 BCE)

Cyropaedia of Xenophon; The Life of Cyrus the Great, Xenophon

Cyrus the "Father" and Babylonia, by G. G. Cameron (PDF File)

Cyrus the Great, "The Father and Liberator", by Sh. Suren-Pahlav

Cyrus the Great's Cylinder, Transliteration & Translation of the Text

Cyrus the Great's Cylinder, The First World Charter of Human Rights in 530BCE, by Sh. Suren-Pahlav

Cyrus the Great: The Decree of Return for the Jews 539BCE, The K. Prism

Cyrus the Great in Icelandic Epics: A literary Study, by J. Jonnsen (PDF File)

First Declaration of Human Rights (The), by Dr Darius Jahanian

Defeat of the Persians under Cyrus the Great, by Queen Tomyris of the Massagetai; Herodotus

Some Notes on the Characterization of Cyrus the Great in Jewish and Judeo-Persian Writings, by A. Netzer (PDF File)

Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by A. Zournatzi

When Cyrus the Great was a Boy, Xenophon

Winged Figure of Cyrus the Great (The)

Zolqarnain; Cyrus the Great in Qur'an,  by: B. Khoramshahi


Post Achaemenid Period (Seleucids) - (333 - 248 BCE)

Alexander's Battles with Darius III, by Arrian

Alexander's Fleet in the Persian Gulf, by: Arrian

Burning of Persepolis by Alexander of Macedon, by: Diodorus

How ‘Great’ Was Alexander?, by Prof. I. Worthington

Iran After the Death of Alexander and Its Resistance to Foreign Ideas; by M. Hedâyati

Pontus, by: Brian McCging


Arsacid/Parthian Dynasty: 248 BCE - 224 CE)

Arsacid Chronology in Traditional History, by Prof. A. Sh. Shahbazi

Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia, by Prof. A. Sh. Shahbazi

Battle of Carrhae (The), by Prof. A. Sh. Shahbazi

Beginnings of the Arsacids (The), by: E. J. Bickerman

Dynasty of Arsacids, by K. Schippmann

Egyptian-Iranian Relation under the Seleucids & Parthians, by H. Heinen

Empire of the Parthian (Ashkâniân ) Dynasty, by Sha. Suren-Pahlav

Education under the Parthian & Sasanian Dynasties, by A. Tafazzoli

General Surena; the Hero of Carrhae; by Sh. Suren-Pahlav

India's Parthian Colony On the Origin of the Pallava Empire of Dravidia, by Dr. S. Abbas

Investiture during the Parthian Dynasty, by Dr. V. Sarkhosh-Curtis

Origin of Arsacids (The), by Prof. A. Sh. Shahbazi

Parthian Army

Parthian Clan of Esfandiar, by Prof. E. Yarshater

Parthians of Armenia; Kamsarakan Family, by C. Toumanoff

Roman Description of the Parthians from Justin's History of the World

Statius' Young Parthian King ('Thebaid' 8.286-93) by A. S. Hollis

Tirdad and Ardavan - A New Look at the Genealogy of the Early Arsacids, by Kh. Rezakhani


Sasanian Dynasty (224 CE - 651 CE)

The Empire of the Sasanid (Sâsâniân) Dynasty, by Dr G. Savoia-Vizzini 

An Overview of the Sasanian Militaryby C. Cornuelle

At the Roots of the Sasanian Royal Imagery: The Persepolis Graffiti; by: By: P. Callieri

Context and Contents of Priscianus of Lydia's Solutionum ad Chosroem, the Philosophical discussion at the Sasanian court in 530CE

Egypt Under Sasanians, by R. Altheim-Stiehl

Emperor Ardeshir & the cycle of History, by Dr. R. Frye

Empress Boran (Purandokht), by M. L. Chaumont

Enigmatic relationship of ancient Ural culture with Sasanian dynasty, by S. Kameneva

Êwênbed, The magus and judge of the empire, by Ph. Gignoux

Ganj-e Bâdâvard, by M. Omidsalar

Haftvâd, by Prof. A. Sh. Shahbazi

"Hazârbed" The Grand Intendant, by R. M. Shayegan

Iranian Etiquette in The Sasanian Period, by Dj. Khaleqi-Motlaq

Pêrôz, by Klaus Schipmann

Persians, the Image in Armenia, by: R. Thomson

Reforms of Chosroes Anushirvan (The Immortal Soul), by Prof. R. N. Frye

Sacral Kingship in Sasanian Iran, by J. K. Choksky

Sasanian Army

Sasanians in Africa (The), by M. Compareti

Sasanian Irredentism and the Foundation of Constantinople: Historical Truth and Historical Reality, by D. Frendo

Sasanian Social Class of Dehqân, by Prof. A. Tafazzoli

Shapour I, by Prof. Sh. Shahbazi,

Spahbed; A Sasanian Military Title, by R. Gyselen

Yazdegerd I, by Prof. Sh. Shahbazi


Post-Sasanian "Silent Period" (651 CE - 861 CE)

After the Fall

Afshin, by C. E. Bosworth

Babak Khorrami - The Persian Hero, by prof. Gh. H. Yousefi

Babak & Khorramdinan Movement

Prince Pirooz in China: Defeated Persian army takes refugeby F. Wong

Spahbed Rustam Farrukh-Hormazd & Battle of Qadissiyah

The History of Zoroastrians after Arab Invasion; Alien in Their Homeland, by Dr D. Jahanian


General History

A Brief History of Persian Empire, CAIS 

Bitter Story of Plundering Cultural Heritage of Iran, by: A. Âyati

Early Persians’ Interest in History, by Prof. A. Sh. Shahbazi

Empires Lost & Found: Stratigraphy and the Search for the Great Powers of the Past, by G. Heinsohn

Herat Question: How Herat Separated from Iran, by  A. Amanat

Historiography of Iran, by Elton L. Daniel & A. Shapur Shahbazi

History of the Breakup of Iran

History of Iranian-Georgian Relation, by: Keith Hitchin

Iranians and Turanians in Avesta, Dr. A. A. Jafari

Persia or Iran?


Chronological Ancient History of Iran from 8000BCE to CE 651

Ancient Iranian Kings-List From Elamites to Sasanian Dynasty

Chronology of the Ancient Iran; From Prehistory to the end of Sasanian Dynasty



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